As the 1960’s dawned, theater companies in Eastern Europe used their stages to comment on political repression. From Czechoslovakia and Poland came the voices of Josef Svoboda, Václav Havel, and Jerzy Grotowski, using theater to question the harsh realities of life and forge new relationships between actor and audience. By ignoring large theaters, these writers and producers were able to create an intimacy that forced the audience to confront the playwright’s challenges. German theater, largely state subsidized, flourished with documentary dramas highlighting political or social atrocities, either past or present. Soul searching about the recent war produced plays questioning Germany’s inhumane role as well as criticizing policies in other countries. Playwrights such as Rolf Hochhuth (The Deputy, 1963) charged that Pope Pius XII had not taken a decisive enough stand against the Nazis, and Heinar Kipphardt (The Case of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1964) joined Peter Weiss, whose The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade (1964, commonly known as Marat/Sade) suggested that the world was, in fact, an asylum. The British theater, unlike that of Eastern Europe, changed from inside its venerable institutions. The Royal Shakespeare Company, filled with young talent (actors Paul Scofield, David Warner, and Judy Dench), expanded into a year-round venue, producing a season of Artaud, among other things. Peter Brook, perhaps the best known of the company’s directors, sought new drama from Europe and, by 1962, had the company performing a translation of German playwright Weiss’s Marat/Sade. Even when directing Shakespeare, Brook looked for new ways of translating the text into performance. His A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1970) included trapezes and dance to envelope the audience in his magical world. He searched for ways to make the play relevant to modern audiences. Both of these plays were imported to the New York stage.