illustration of Count Bertram in profile

All's Well That Ends Well

by William Shakespeare

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All's Well That Ends Well Summary

All's Well That Ends Well is a play by William Shakespeare in which Helena forcibly marries Count Bertram. Bertram flees and declares that he will not acknowledge their marriage until Helena satisfies specific conditions.

  • Helena cures the king of a serious malady and is rewarded with the the ability to choose a husband. She chooses Count Bertram.

  • Bertram runs away, declaring that Helena will not truly be his wife until she wears his ring and carries his child—impossible requirements, given their geographical separation.

  • Helena is able to fulfill both of his requirements through trickery, and Bertram and Helena ultimately have a happy marriage.


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Last Updated September 5, 2023.

Helena, the play's protagonist, has been raised in France as a ward of the Countess of Roussillon. She is in love with Bertram, the countess's son, but understands that they are not equal in status.

Bertram leaves for Paris, and it is comforting for Helena to talk with Parolles, one of Bertram's associates, for his connection with Bertram. Parolles talks to her about virginity and indicates that it is a demerit rather than a merit. Helena brushes off his vulgar words.

Helena learns that the king of France is critically ill and decides to go to Paris. She takes with her a remedy that her late father, a wise doctor, gave her. She knows that the king has already asked Bertram about her father and has been upset to learn that he is no longer living.

At first, the king flatly refuses Helena's offer of help; the best doctors have just declared his illness incurable. Helena is willing to be executed, however, should the remedy fail, and a hope is born in the king's heart. When Helena asks about her reward if the remedy works, the king promises to grant her anything, and Helena asks for permission to marry a noble of her choice from the king's court.

Helena manages to cure the king. She asks him to give her in marriage to Bertram. However, Bertram refuses to marry her, thinking that to be bound in wedlock with a physician's daughter is a disgrace. The king says,

Strange is it that our bloods,Of colour, weight, and heat, pour’d all together,Would quite confound distinction, yet stands offIn differences so mighty. If she beAll that is virtuous, save what thou dislik'st,A poor physician's daughter,—thou dislik'st—Of virtue for the name. But do not so.

Helena responds to Bertram's refusal in a dignified manner, but the king's honor is offended. He promises to raise Helena and punish Bertram. Bertram must consent to the marriage, but he is going to war in Tuscany and leaves his intended behind.

Helena soon receives a letter from him, which states,

When thou canst get the ring upon my finger, which never shall come off, and show me a child begotten of thy body that I am father to, then call me husband; but in such a "then" I write a "never."

The countess disowns her son and calls Helena her own only child. Helena, however, blames herself, thinking that she needs to leave so that Bertram might return home.

Dressed as a pilgrim, Helena leaves France and arrives in Bertram's camp. There, Helena learns that her husband courts a young Florentine named Diana. Helena meets Diana and her mother, and the women decide to help her. Helena disguises herself as Diana and has a tryst with Bertram. Thus, Helena and Bertram's marriage is consummated, and she receives from him the ring that his letter mentioned. She, in turn, gives him the ring that the king had presented her with.

Then, Helena spreads a rumor about her own death. Bertram returns to France, where the old Lord Lafew proposes that Bertram marry his daughter. Prompted by Helena, Diana shows up and demonstrates the ring that she claims Bertram has given her. Bertram's mother immediately recognizes the family jewel. Diana returns the ring and asks Bertram to return hers as well. The king recognizes the ring that he has given Helena and orders Diana and Bertram to be arrested. It is Helena who resolves this difficult situation. She reappears and acknowledges that the ring that Diana has shown belongs to her. It appears, then,...

(This entire section contains 670 words.)

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that she has fulfilled one of Bertram's conditions. She has also begotten a child with Bertram. Seeing that she has fulfilled his challenge, Bertram proclaims his love for her.

The king promises Diana a dowry because she has been so helpful in bringing the whole matter to a happy end. He says,

All yet seems well, and if it end so meet,The bitter past, more welcome is the sweet.


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Bertram, the Count of Rousillon, is called to the court to serve the king of France, who is ill of a disease that all the royal physicians have failed to cure. In the entire country the only doctor who might have cured the king is now dead. On his deathbed he bequeaths to his daughter Helena his books and papers describing cures for all common and rare diseases, among them the one suffered by the king.

Helena is now the ward of the Countess of Rousillon, who thinks of her as a daughter. Helena loves young Count Bertram and wants him for a husband, not a brother. Bertram considers Helena only slightly above a servant, however, and will not consider her for a wife. Through her knowledge of the king’s illness, Helena at last hits upon a plot to gain the spoiled young man for her mate, in such fashion as to leave him no choice in the decision. She journeys to the court and, offering her life as forfeit if she fails, gains the king’s consent to try her father’s cure on him. If she wins, the young lord of her choice is to be given to her in marriage.

Her sincerity wins the king’s confidence. She cures him by means of her father’s prescription and, as her boon, asks for Bertram for her husband. The young man protests to the king, but the ruler keeps his promise, not only because he gave his word but also because Helena won him over completely.

When the king orders the marriage to be performed at once, Bertram, although bowing to the king’s will, will not have Helena for a wife in any but a legal way. Pleading the excuse of urgent business elsewhere, he deserts her after the ceremony and sends messages to her and to his mother saying he will never belong to a wife forced upon him. He tells Helena that she will not really be his wife until she wears on her finger a ring he now wears on his and carries in her body a child that is his. He then states that these two things will never come to pass, for he will never see Helena again. He is encouraged in his hatred for Helena by his follower, Parolles, a scoundrel and a coward who will as soon betray one person as another. Helena reproaches him for his vulgar ways, and he wants vengeance on her.

Helena returns to the Countess of Rousillon, as Bertram commands. The countess hears of her son’s actions with horror, and when she reads the letter he writes her, restating his hatred for Helena, she disowns her son, for she loves Helena like her own child. When Helena learns that Bertram says he would never return to France until he no longer has a wife there, she sadly decides to leave the home of her benefactress. Loving Bertram, she vows that she will not keep him from his home.

Disguising herself as a religious pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to Italy, where he goes to fight for the duke of Florence. While lodging with a widow and her daughter, a beautiful young girl named Diana, Helena learns that Bertram seduced a number of young Florentine girls. Lately he turned his attentions to Diana, but she, a pure and virtuous girl, will not accept his attentions. Then Helena tells the widow and Diana that she is Bertram’s wife, and by bribery and a show of friendliness she persuades them to join her in a plot against Bertram. Diana listens again to his vows of love for her and agrees to let him come to her rooms, provided he first gives her a ring from his finger to prove the constancy of his love. Bertram, overcome with passion, gives her the ring, and that night, as he keeps the appointment in her room, the girl he thinks is Diana slips a ring on his finger as they lie in bed together.

News came to the countess in France and to Bertram in Italy that Helena died of grief and love for Bertram. Bertram returns to France to face his mother’s and the king’s displeasure, but first he discovers that Parolles is the knave everyone else knows him to be. When Bertram holds him up to public ridicule, Parolles vows he will take revenge on his former benefactor.

When the king visits the Countess of Rousillon, she begs him to restore her son to favor. Bertram protests that he really loves Helena, though he did not recognize that love until after he lost her forever through death. His humility so pleases the king that his confession of love, coupled with his exploits in the Italian wars, wins him a royal pardon for his offense against his wife. Then the king, about to betroth him to another wife, the lovely and wealthy daughter of a favorite lord, notices the ring Bertram is wearing. It is the ring given to him the night he went to Diana’s rooms; the king in turn recognizes it as a jewel he gave to Helena. Bertram pretends that it was thrown to him in Florence by a high-born lady who loved him. He says that he told the lady he was not free to wed, but that she refused to take back her gift.

At that moment, Diana appears as a petitioner to the king and demands that Bertram fulfill his pledge to recognize her as his wife. When Bertram pretends that she is no more than a prostitute he visited, she produces the ring he gave her. That ring convinces everyone present, especially his mother, that Diana is really Bertram’s wife. Parolles adds to the evidence against Bertram by testifying that he heard his former master promise to marry the girl. Bertram persists in his denials. Diana then asks for the ring she gave him, the ring which the king thinks to be Helena’s. The king asks Diana where she got the ring. When she refuses to tell on penalty of her life, he orders her taken to prison. Diana then declares that she will send for her bail. Her bail is Helena, now carrying Bertram’s child within her, for it was she, of course, who received him in Diana’s rooms that fateful night. To her Diana gave the ring. The two requirements for becoming his real wife being now fulfilled, Bertram promises to love Helena as a true and faithful husband. Diana receives from the king a promise to give her any young man of her choice for her husband, the king to provide the dowry. Thus the bitter events of the past make sweeter the happiness of all.