Alain-René Lesage (leh-sahzh), sometimes spelled Le Sage, was educated at Jesuit schools in Brittany. His parents died when he was young, and his guardians squandered the family finances. Lesage, like his father, pursued a career in law. In the 1690’s, however, while working as an attorney in Paris, he was influenced by the Abbé de Lionne to become a translator of Spanish works from the sixteenth century Golden Age. At this time he married Marie-Elisabeth Huyard, the daughter of a cabinet maker.
Lesage established himself as a prolific author of comedies written for the Théâtre de la Foire and for the Théâtre Forain. These plays were performed during holiday festivals, and all the manuscripts have disappeared. In 1707, his one-act farce Crispin, Rival of His Master was staged by the Comédie Française. Turcaret, based on an earlier comedy about tax collectors and financiers, was also well received.
Lesage’s greatest imprint on French literature came from two novels, The Devil upon Two Sticks and Gil Blas, both of which were revived and expanded in subsequent editions. The Devil upon Two Sticks is based on the popular Spanish novel El Diablo cojuelo, by Luis Vélez Guevara. In this satiric fable, a genie named Asmodée removes the rooftops of Madrid in order to expose the intimacies and absurdities of bourgeois life. Gil Blas—a sprawling picaresque novel also indebted...
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