Written in the late 1970’s while Hooks was an undergraduate student and first published in 1981, Ain’t I a Woman presents a critical, challenging, and honest examination of the intersections that determine and identify identity, politics, and culture. By engaging carefully and in detail with the body of literature on issues of particular importance to black and white women and men, Hooks highlights the consistent omission of black women from discussions of race and gender in America. Hooks was among the first to write so forcefully on the inextricable link between race and sex on every level of American society, but Ain’t I a Woman was not initially well-received by either white feminists or African Americans in the academy. Her essays boldly accused white women of being racist, black men of being sexist, and white men of being both; Hooks even went on to highlight the often elitist and classist perspectives of both groups. Her book demanded a shift in critical perspective for which the academy was not yet ready.
Since its publication, the contribution and impact of Ain’t I a Woman has become increasingly evident. Academic discussions of feminism, womanism, imperialism, racism, and capitalism have increased in quantity and quality, allowing Hooks’s complex analysis to gain traction and relevance. The canon of African American literature has expanded and benefitted from this groundbreaking analysis, which helped establish that there is no single, authentic composite black woman and no composite black woman’s voice. Hooks reiterates the complexities, multilayeredness, and depth of black women’s experiences and voices. Ain’t I a Woman has become widely quoted and referenced, influencing the work of others as well as providing a foundation for Hooks’s later writing. The book opened the door for increased, improved black feminist thought and practice.