Agreements Between the United States and Japan eText - Primary Source

Primary Source

A U.S. Army soldier offers to push a Japanese youth on a swing on a playground in Sendai, Japan, in 1951. The Mutual Security Agreement between Japan and the U.S. provided rationale for U.S. military occupation of Japanese land. AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS. REPR A U.S. Army soldier offers to push a Japanese youth on a swing on a playground in Sendai, Japan, in 1951. The Mutual Security Agreement between Japan and the U.S. provided rationale for U.S. military occupation of Japanese land. AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION. Published by Gale Cengage AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION.

"Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, September 8, 1951"

Treaty

Date: September 8, 1951

Source: "Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, September 8, 1951." Available online at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/japan/japan001.... ; website home page: http://www.yale.edu (accessed June 18, 2003).

"U.S. and Japan Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement"

Treaty

Date: March 8, 1954

Source: "U.S. and Japan Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement." March 8, 1954. Available online at http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/primarysources/col... ; website home page: http://www.learner.org (accessed June 18, 2003).

Introduction

In the closing days of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States both sought control of territory formerly controlled by the Axis powers. In Europe, the United States strove to stabilize West Germany. On a larger scale, the Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan emphasized that the United States would spend billions of dollars in order to strengthen its alliances with European nations and counter the Soviet Union's movements into Eastern Europe.

In Asia, a similar situation unfolded. After signing the surrender agreement, the United States began an occupation of Japan that lasted until 1952. During this span, U.S. officials, under the direction of General Douglas MacArthur, directed the complete reconstruction of Japanese society. In the first two years of the occupation, often described as the program's progressive period, MacArthur encouraged several liberal social, economic, and political reforms.

From a military viewpoint, however, the United States did not allow Japan to construct and maintain armed forces for the purpose of an offensive conflict. Ironically, the United States soon called for Japan to remilitarize, requesting a standing army following the onset of the Korean War (1950–1953). U.S. officials ended the period of liberal reforms and strove to make Japan a "bulwark against communism" in East Asia. To achieve this objective, many of Japan's wartime leaders were reappointed to positions of power in order to more rapidly reconstruct the nation's industrial capacity.

The reappointment of Japan's wartime leaders reveals the massive impact of the Cold War and anticommunism, where the leaders of Japan and the Japanese people themselves could be portrayed as the perfect allies in the war against communism. This was a dramatic shift from the racist propaganda that flooded the United States just five years before.

Significance

The culmination of this shift in attitude from the racist propaganda of World War II to the new objectives of the Cold War may be seen in the Security Treaty of 1951 and the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement of 1954. These documents outlined the postwar alliance between the United States and Japan that would continue throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The Treaty of Peace, signed the same day as the Security Treaty on September 8, 1951, called for the end of U.S. occupation. Yet, as emphasized by the Security Treaty, the two nations would continue to possess a strong bond. In fact, this pact called for the continued presence of U.S. military personnel in Japan as a defense measure against possible attack. The agreement also encouraged the development of a Japanese self-defense force that would eventually enable the removal of U.S. military forces from Japan.

In the context of heightened nuclear tensions between the superpowers, the involvement of Japan in the United States' Cold War policies sparked massive protests against the military alliance. The Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement, signed on March 8, 1954, reflected Japan's desire for increased autonomy following the end of the Korean War. The pact expanded on the central economic and security elements addressed in the earlier Security Treaty and further emphasized the need for both nations to support each other not only with the promise of military protection, but also with aid in economic development. While the United States devoted billions of dollars to an arms race with the Soviet Union, protection under the U.S. defense umbrella and production orders to support U.S. personnel stationed in the region brought real economic benefits for Japan. Japan's economic policies could focus on development of consumer goods, rather than weaponry, thus enabling the nation to develop one of the world's largest economies by the end of the 1960s.

Primary Source: "Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, September 8, 1951"

SYNOPSIS: The following document marks the beginning of a formal international alliance between the United States and Japan. In this treaty, the United States agrees to maintain a standing military force within the region to help provide security and defense from an outside aggressor. Furthermore, Japan agrees to build its own military, which will eventually take over the responsibility of national defense.

Japan has this day signed a Treaty of Peace with the Allied Powers. On the coming into force of that Treaty, Japan will not have the effective means to exercise its inherent right of self-defense because it has been disarmed.

There is danger to Japan in this situation because irresponsible militarism has not yet been driven from the world. Therefore Japan desires a Security Treaty with the United States of America to come into force simultaneously with the Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and Japan.

The Treaty of Peace recognizes that Japan as a sovereign nation has the right to enter into collective security arrangements, and further, the Charter of the United Nations recognizes that all nations possess an inherent right of individual and collective self-defense.

In exercise of these rights, Japan desires, as a provisional arrangement for its defense, that the United States of America should maintain armed forces of its own in and about Japan so as to deter armed attack upon Japan.

The United States of America, in the interest of peace and security, is presently willing to maintain certain of its armed forces in and about Japan, in the expectation, however, that Japan will itself increasingly assume responsibility for its own defense against direct and indirect aggression, always avoiding any armament which could be an offensive threat or serve other than to promote peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter. Accordingly, the two countries have agreed as follows:

Article I

Japan grants, and the United States of America accepts, the right, upon the coming into force of the Treaty of Peace and of this Treaty, to dispose United States land, air and sea forces in and about Japan. Such forces may be utilized to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East and to the security of Japan against armed attack from without, including assistance given at the express request of the Japanese Government to put down largescale internal riots and disturbances in Japan, caused through instigation or intervention by an outside power or powers.

Article II

During the exercise of the right referred to in Article I, Japan will not grant, without the prior consent of the United States of America, any bases or any rights, powers or authority whatsoever, in or relating to bases or the right of garrison or of maneuver, or transit of ground, air or naval forces to any third power.

Article III

The conditions which shall govern the disposition of armed forces of the United States of America in and about Japan shall be determined by administrative agreements between the two Governments.

Article IV

This Treaty shall expire whenever in the opinion of the Governments of the United States of America and Japan there shall have come into force such United Nations arrangements or such alternative individual or collective security dispositions as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance by the United Nations or otherwise of international peace and security in the Japan Area.

Article V

This Treaty shall be ratified by the United States of America and Japan and will come into force when instruments of ratification thereof have been exchanged by them at Washington.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.

DONE in duplicate at the city of San Francisco, in the English and Japanese languages, this eighth day of September, 1951.

Primary Source: "U.S. and Japan Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement"

SYNOPSIS: U.S. and Japanese officials have renewed this mutual security agreement every decade since the end of the U.S. occupation. These renewals often create waves of protests from Japanese discontent with their implicit role in U.S. foreign policy. Marking the agreement's renewal in 1997, the joint authors once again proclaimed the necessity of a security alliance between the United States and Japan, "Although the Cold War has ended, the potential for instability in this region has greater importance for the security of Japan."

The Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan,

Desiring to foster international peace and security, within the framework of the Charter of the United Nations, through voluntary arrangements which will further the ability of nations dedicated to the purposes and principles of the Charter to develop effective measures for individual and collective self-defense in support of those purposes and principles;

Reaffirming their belief as stated in the Treaty of Peace with Japan signed at the city of San Francisco on September 8, 1951 that Japan as a sovereign nation possesses the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense referred to in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations;

Recalling the preamble of the Security Treaty between the United States of America and Japan, signed at the city of San Francisco on September 8, 1951, to the effect that the United States of America, in the interest of peace and security, would maintain certain of its armed forces in and about Japan as a provisional arrangement in the expectation that Japan will itself increasingly assume responsibility for its own defense against direct and indirect aggression, always avoiding armament which could be an offensive threat or serve other than to promote peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles or the Charter of the United Nations;

Recognizing that, in the planning of a defense assistance program for Japan, economic stability will be an essential element for consideration in the development of its defense capacities, and that Japan can contribute only to the extent permitted by its general economic condition and capacities;

Taking into consideration the support that the Government of the United States of America has brought to these principles by enacting the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, as amended, and the Mutual Security Act of 1951, as amended, which provide for the furnishing of defense assistance by the United States of America in furtherance of the objectives referred to above; and

Desiring to set forth the conditions which will govern the furnishing of such assistance;

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

  1. Each Government, consistently with the principle that economic stability is essential to international peace and security, will make available to the other and to such other governments as the two Governments signatory to the present Agreement may in each case agree upon, such equipment, materials, services, or other assistance as the Government furnishing such assistance may authorize, in accordance with such detailed arrangements as may be made between them. The furnishing and use or any such assistance as may be authorized by either Government shall be consistent with the Charter of the United Nations. Such assistance as may be made available by the Government of the United States of America pursuant to the present Agreement will be furnished under those provisions, and subject to all of those terms, conditions and termination provisions of the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949, the Mutual Security Act of 1951, acts amendatory and supplementary thereto, and appropriation acts there-under which may affect the furnishing of such assistance.
  2. Each Government will make effective use of assistance received pursuant to the present Agreement for the purposes of promoting peace and security in a manner that is satisfactory to both Governments, and neither Government, without the prior consent of the other, will devote such assistance to any other purpose.
  3. Each Government will offer for return to the other, in accordance with terms, conditions and procedures mutually agreed upon, equipment or materials furnished under the present Agreement, except equipment and materials furnished on terms requiring reimbursement, and no longer required for the Purposes for which it was originally made available.
  4. In the interest of common security, each Government undertakes not to transfer to any person not an officer or agent of such Government, or to any other government, title to or possession of any equipment, materials, or services received pursuant to the present Agreement, without the prior consent of the Government which furnished such assistance.

Article II

In conformity with the principle of mutual aid, the Government of Japan agrees to facilitate the production and transfer to the Government of the United States of America for such period of time, in such quantities and upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon of raw and semiprocessed materials required by the United States of America as a result of deficiencies or potential deficiencies in its own resources, and which may be available in Japan. Arrangements for such transfers shall give due regard to requirements for domestic use and commercial export as determined by the Government of Japan.

Article III

  1. Each Government will take such security measures as may be agreed upon between the two Governments in order to prevent the disclosure or compromise of classified articles, services or information furnished by the other Government pursuant to the present Agreement.
  2. Each Government will take appropriate measures consistent with security to keep the public informed of operations under the present Agreement.

Article IV

The two Governments will, upon the request of either or them, make appropriate arrangements providing for the methods and terms of the exchange of industrial property rights and technical information for defense which will expedite such exchange and at the same time protect private interests and maintain security safeguards.

Article V

The two Governments will consult for the purpose of establishing procedures whereby the Government of Japan will so deposit, segregate, or assure title to all funds allocated to or derived from any programs of assistance undertaken by the Government of the United States of America so that such funds shall not be subject to garnishment, attachment, seizure or other legal process by any person, firm, agency, corporation, organization or government, when the Government of Japan is advised by the Government of the United States of America that any such legal process would interfere with the attainment of the objectives of the program of assistance.

Article VI

  1. The Government of Japan will grant
    1. Exemption from duties and internal taxation upon importation or exportation to materials, supplies or equipment imported into or exported from its territory under the present Agreement or any similar agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of any other country receiving assistance, except as otherwise agreed to; and
    2. Exemption from and refund of Japanese taxes, as enumerated in the attached Annex E, so far as they may affect expenditures of or financed by the Government of the United States of America effected in Japan for procurement of materials, supplies, equipment and services under the present Agreement or any similar agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of any other country receiving assistance.
  2. Exemption from duties and exemption from and refund of Japanese taxes as enumerated in the attached Annex E will apply, in addition, to any other expenditures of or financed by the Government of the United States of America for materials, supplies, equipment and services for mutual defense, including expenditures made in conformity with the Security Treaty between the United States of America and Japan or any foreign aid program of the Government of the United States of America under the Mutual Security Act of 1951, as amended, or any acts supplementary, amendatory or successory thereto.

Article VII

  1. The Government of Japan agrees to receive personnel of the Government of the United States of America who will discharge in the territory of Japan the responsibilities of the latter Government regarding equipment, materials, and services furnished under the present Agreement, and who will be accorded facilities to observe the progress of the assistance furnished by the Government of the United States of America under the present Agreement. Such personnel who are nationals of the United States of America, including personnel temporarily assigned, will, in their relationships with the Government of Japan, operate as part of the Embassy of the United States of America under the direction and control of the Chief of the Diplomatic Mission, and will have the same privileges and immunities as are accorded to other personnel with corresponding rank in the Embassy of the United States of America.
  2. The Government of Japan will make available, from time to time, to the Government of the United States of America funds in yen for the administrative and related expenses of the latter Government in connection with carrying out the present Agreement.

Article VIII

The Government of Japan, reaffirming its determination to join in promoting international understanding and good will, and maintaining world peace, to take such action as may be mutually agreed upon to eliminate causes of international tension, and to fulfill the military obligations which the Government of Japan has assumed under the Security Treaty between the United States of America and Japan, will make, consistent with the political and economic stability of Japan, the full contribution permitted by its manpower, resources, facilities and general economic condition to the development and maintenance of its own defensive strength and the defensive strength of the free world, take all reasonable measures which may be needed to develop its defense capacities, and take appropriate steps to ensure the effective utilization of any assistance provided by the Government of the United States of America.

Article IX

  1. Nothing contained in the present Agreement shall be construed to alter or otherwise modify the Security Treaty between the United States of America and Japan or any arrangements concluded there-under.
  2. The present Agreement will be implemented by each Government in accordance with the constitutional provisions of the respective countries.

Article X

  1. The two Governments will, upon the request of either of them, consult regarding any matter relating to the application of the present Agreement or to operations or arrangements carried out pursuant to the present Agreement.
  2. The terms of the present Agreement may be reviewed at the request of either of the two Governments or amended by agreement between them at any time.

Article XI

  1. The present Agreement shall come into force on the date of receipt by the Government of the United States of America of a written notice from the Government of Japan of ratification of the Agreement by Japan.
  2. The present Agreement will thereafter continue in force until one year after the date of receipt by either Government of a written notice of the intention of the other to terminate it, provided that the provisions of Article I, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, and arrangements entered into under Article III, paragraph 1 and Article IV shall remain in force unless otherwise agreed by the two Governments.
  3. The Annexes to the present Agreement shall form an integral part thereof.
  4. The present Agreement shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives of the two Governments, duly authorized for the purpose, have signed the present Agreement.

DONE in duplicate, in the English and Japanese languages, both equally authentic, at Tokyo, this eighth day of March, one thousand nine hundred fifty-four.

For the United States of America:
John M. Allison

For Japan: Katsuo Okazaki

Further Resources

BOOKS

Bix, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New
York: HarperCollins, 2000.

Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World
War II. New York: Norton, 1999.