Allen, William Francis. Slave Songs of the United States. 1867. Reprint, New York: Arno, 1971.
Baker, Houston A., Jr. Long Black Song: Essays in Black American Literature and Culture. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1972.
———. Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature: A Vernacular Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
Bell, Bernard. The Folk Roots of Contemporary Afro-American Poetry. Detroit: Broadside Press, 1974.
Botkin, B. A. New York City Folklore. New York: Random House, 1956.
Brewer, James Mason. American...
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