Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 372
- In the 1930s, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was adapted twice as a black-and-white film under the title Huckleberry Finn, once in 1931 by director Norman Taurog for Paramount, and then in 1939 by MGM. The latter is the most famous of the novel's adaptations. It was directed by Richard Thorpe and starred Mickey Rooney as Huck and Rex Ingram as Jim. The 1939 film is available on video from MGM/UA Home Entertainment.
- An adaptation of the novel was produced for the "Climax" television program in 1954 by CBS. It starred Thomas Mitchell and John Carradine and is available from Nostalgia Family Video.
- Another film version of the book was released by MGM in 1960, this time in color as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Directed by Michael Curtiz, the film starred Eddie Hodges as Huck, Archie Moore as Jim, and Tony Randall as the King. This adaptation is also available on video from MGM/UA Home Entertainment.
- PBS produced a version titled The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn for "American Playhouse" in 1986. The movie was directed by Peter H. Hunt and the cast included Sada Thompson, Lillian Gish, Richard Kiley, Jim Dale, and Geraldine Page. It is available from MCA/Universal Home Video.
- Walt Disney produced The Adventures of Huck Finn in 1993. This film, starring Elijah Wood as Huck and Courtney B. Vance as Jim, deleted racial epithets and translated the characters' dialects to suit modern tastes. It was directed by Stephen Sommers, who also wrote the screenplay. The film is available from Walt Disney Home Video.
- In 1994, the novel was updated in the film adaptation Huck and the King of Hearts produced by Crystal Sky Communications. In this version, Chauncey Leopardi plays Huck, who lives in a trailer park, and Graham Green plays Jim, who is a Native American con artist fleeing a hoodlum from whom he has stolen drug money. The movie was directed by Michael Keusch and written by Chris Sturgeon. It is available on home video.
- The novel has also been recorded on sound cassettes many times since 1980. Unabridged versions are available from Books, Inc. and Books in Motions. Abridged versions are available from Metacom, Listen for Pleasure Ltd., and Time Warner Audiobooks, which released a study guide along with the tape.
For Further Reference
Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 323
Anderson, Frederick, ed. Mark Twain: The Critical Heritage. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1971. This collection traces criticism of Twain's writing from the publication of his first novels to recent times.
Blair, Walter. Mark Twain and Huck Finn. Berkeley: University of California, 1960. This pioneering work explores the background and creation of Huckleberry Finn.
ed. Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck and Tom. Berkeley: University of California, 1969. A collection of other works, most fragmentary, in which Twain uses materials from the Hannibal background. None of these possess any great merit, but they are interesting to contrast with Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn.
Bradley, Sculley, et al., eds. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: An Annotated Text, Backgrounds and Sources, Essays in Criticism. 2d ed. New York: Norton, 1977. An edition of the novel with very good notes and major critical essays. Also contains a useful bibliography.
Ferguson, DeLancey. Mark Twain: Man and Legend. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943. A reliable, balanced, and readable biography.
Hill, Hamlin. Mark Twain: God's Fool New York: Harper and Row, 1973. A picture of Twain's unhappy final years.
Kaplan, Justin. Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966. A controversial, though effective, biography stressing the duality in Twain's character.
Lauber, John. The Making of Mark Twain. New York: American Heritage, 1985. A fine short treatment of the experiences up to 1870 that shaped Twain as a writer.
Paine, Albert Bigelow. Mark Twain: A Biography. New York: Harper, 1912. A two-volume biography by the man Twain chose to write his life. Still a major resource.
Sattelmeyer, Robert, and J. Donald Crowley, eds. One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn: The Boy, His Book, and American Culture. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985. An excellent collection of essays with an extensive bibliography.
Stone, Albert E., Jr. The Innocent Eye: Childhood in Mark Twain's Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961. Examines the role of childhood in Twain's vision.
Wecter, Dixon. Sam Clemens of Hannibal Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1952. An insightful treatment of the author's early life.
Bibliography and Further Reading
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Baetzhold, Howard G. "Samuel Longhorn Clemens." In Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography: Realism, Naturalism, and Local Color, 1865-1917. Gale, 1988, pp. 68-83.
Bridgman, Richard. Traveling in Mark Twain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Camfeld, Gregg, ed. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Chadwick-Joshua, Jocelyn. The Jim Dilemma: Reading Race in "Huckleberry Finn." Jackson, Miss: University Press of Mississippi.
Fishkin, Shelly Fisher. Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Graff, Gerald, and John Phelan, eds. Mark Twain's "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: A Case Study in Critical Controversy. Boston, MA: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Hansen, Chadwick. "The Character of Jim and the Ending of 'Huckleberry Finn'." In The Massachusetts Review, Vol. V, No. 1, Autumn, 1963, pp. 45-66.
Hemingway, Ernest. The Green Hills of Africa. Scribner, 1935.
Henry, Peaches. "The Struggle for Tolerance: Race and Censorship in Huckleberry Finn." In Satire or Evasion? Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn, edited by James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadius Davis. Duke University Press, 1992, pp. 25-48.
Howe, Lawrence. Mark Twain and the Novel: The Double-Cross of Authority. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Kravitz, Bennett. Dreaming Mark Twain. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996.
Lester, Julius. "Morality and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." In Satire or Evasion? Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn, edited by James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadius Davis. Duke University Press, 1992, pp. 199-207.
Lott, Eric. "Mr. Clemens and Jim Crow: Twain, Race, and Blackface." In Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literature, edited by Henry B. Wonham. Rutgers University Press, 1996, pp 30-42.
Marx, Leo. "Mr. Eliot, Mr. Trilling, and Huckleberry Finn." In The American Scholar, Vol. XXII, 1953, pp. 432-40.
Mencken, H. L. "Final Estimate." In his H. L. Mencken's "Smart Set" Criticism, edited by William H. Nolte. Cornell University Press, 1968, pp. 182-89.
Rasmussen, R. Kent. Mark Twain A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Life and Writings. New York: Facts on File, 1995.
Robinson, Forrest G. "The Characterization of Jim in Huckleberry Finn." In Nineteenth-Century Literature, Vol XLIII, No. 3, December, 1988, pp. 361-91.
Sloane, David E. E. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: American Comic Vision. Boston, MA: Twayne, 1988.
Trilling, Lionel. "The Greatness of Huckleberry Finn." In Huckleberry Finn Among the Critics, edited by M. Thomas Inge. University Publications of America, 1985, pp. 81-92.
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, edited by Henry Nash Smith. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1958.
Wieck, Carl F. Refiguring Huckleberry Finn. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.
For Further Study
Berret, Anthony J. Mark Twain and Shakespeare: a Cultural Legacy. University Press of America, 1993. A contextualization of Shakespeare in Twain's time, debates about authorship, Twain's identification with Shakespeare, and popular productions.
Boker, Pamela A. The Grief Taboo in American Literature: Loss and Prolonged Adolescence in Twain, Melville, and Hemingway. New York University Press, 1996. In this study, Boker looks at the relationship between loss and coming-of-age issues as they are expressed in the works of several prominent American authors.
Bridgman, Richard. Traveling in Mark Twain. University of California Press, 1987. A study of how journeys express several themes in Twain's works.
DeVoto, Bernard. Mark Twain's America. Houghton Mifflin, 1932. DeVoto thoroughly analyses the novel's structure and reception.
Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. Lighting Out for the Territory: Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture. Oxford University Press, 1997. A new study of how Twain's focus on issues relating to the frontier reflect a uniquely American experience.
Hoffman, Andrew Jay. Twain's Heroes, Twain's Worlds: Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, and Pudd'nhead Wilson. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988. A study which interprets Twain's characters, including Huck Finn, according to various theories of heroism.
Knoper, Randall K. Acting Naturally: Mark Twain in the Culture of Performance. University of California Press, 1995. A study which places Twain's work in the popular culture of his time, placing special emphasis on the theatrical forms of entertainment popular in Twain's day and their influence on his work.
Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Vintage, 1992, pp. 54-7. Morrison interprets the importance of Jim in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and relates Twain's portrayal to other writers' fascination with and use of African-American characters in American literature.
Sewell, David R. Mark Twain's Language: Discourse, Dialogue, and Linguistic Variety. University of California Press, 1987. This linguistic study uses sophisticated language theory to analyze Twain's writing. Although a scholarly study, this work is relatively free of jargon.
Sloane, David E. E. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: American Comic Vision. Twayne Publishers, 1988. This volume in the Twayne "Masterwork Series" examines Huck Finn and how it fits within the American tradition of comic literature.
Stahl, J. D. Mark Twain, Culture and Gender: Envisioning America Through Europe. University of Georgia Press, 1994. This study looks at two trends in examining Twain's work: first, Twain's treatment of and concern with gender issues; and second, Twain's use of encounters with Europe as a means to explore and define the American identity.
Sundquist, Eric J., ed. Mark Twain: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice Hall, 1994. A collection of scholarly essays, three of which examine The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in particular. A good introduction to recent scholarly approaches to Twain's work.
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Adams, Richard P. “The Unity and Coherence of Huckleberry Finn.” In Huck Finn Among the Critics: A Centennial Selection, edited by M. Thomas Inge. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1985. Summarizes previous critical opinion about the novel’s structure and argues that its organization of imagery results in symbolic patterns that include the organic ending.
Blair, Walter. Mark Twain and Huck Finn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960. Elegantly written classic essay on the writing of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Still valuable as an exploration of the novel’s background of characters and ideas.
Doyno, Victor. Writing “Huck Finn”: Mark Twain’s Creative Process. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. The most nearly definitive essay on the creation of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This original and important work demonstrates conclusively that the major sources for The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were black.
Quirk, Tom. Coming to Grips with “Huckleberry Finn”: Essays on a Book, a Boy, and a Man. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993. Explores issues in the novel and presents factual contexts for them. Examines Twain’s attitude toward race.
Rasmussen, R. Kent. Mark Twain A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Life and Writings. New York: Facts On File, 1995. Contains the most detailed published synopsis of the novel, cross-referenced to analytical essays on all characters and places mentioned in the text.
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. University of California, 2001. The complete original manuscript, including more than six hundred excised pages.
Wieck, Carl F. Refiguring “Huckleberry Finn.”Georgia, 2000. A novel approach to the meaning and influence of Twain’s best-known work; Wieck concentrates on certain key words to decipher the text.
Williams, Kenney J. “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Or, Mark Twain’s Racial Ambiguity.” In Satire of Evasion? Black Perspectives on “Huckleberry Finn,” edited by James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadious M. Davis. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1992. Offers a balanced analysis of racial ambiguity in the novel. Finds that Mark Twain satirized romanticized attitudes toward race problems. Includes bibliographies.