Before the twentieth century, adaptations of famous novels in theater were more common because the concept of intellectual property was in its infancy, and adapters did not feel obligated to pay royalties to or get permission from the original authors. For instance, shortly after its publication, several playwrights adapted The Vampyre (1819), by John Polidori, to the stage in Great Britain and France because of an erroneous rumor that the famous Romantic George Gordon, Lord Byron, was the true author. James Fenimore Cooper’s novels were popular as well. Ten of his first fourteen novels were adapted to the stage all over Europe. However, the single novel most often adapted in the United States was Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Or, Life Among the Lowly (1852), by Harriet Beecher Stowe. There are twelve known versions and at least four hundred touring companies that played nothing else. The most famous adaptation was by George Aiken, produced in 1852. It had six acts that were performed over two nights and required extensive scene construction and painting. Polidori, Stowe, and Cooper never received royalties.