Adam Zagajewski Zagajewski, Adam - Essay


(Poetry Criticism)

Adam Zagajewski 1945 –

Polish poet, novelist, and essayist

Adam Zagajewski is considered the pre-eminent poet of the generation of Polish writers born after World War II. His literary career began with the protests that swept Poland in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and was primarily concerned with the political struggle to overturn totalitarianism. An exile since 1982, his later poetry addresses themes of both historical and metaphysical alienation. Balancing the concrete and the abstract, irony and mysticism, his poetry no longer advocates a single truth but chronicles the difficult and painful search for meaning in an unsettled world.

Biographical Information

Stanislaw Baranczak identifies Zagajewski as a member of "the generation whose birthdate coincides with the establishment of the Communist order and whose youth was spent rebelling against it." Zagajewski was born on June 21, 1945, in Lvov, in eastern Poland. When Eastern European borders were redrawn after World War II, Lvov became part of the Soviet Ukraine. By 1946 his family was living in Gliwice in western Poland. Zagajewski attended university in Cracow where he was also an editor of the journal Student. In March 1968 he participated in student protests against censorship, and this experience shaped his writing. A prominent voice of protest during the early 1970s, Zagajewski was eventually blacklisted by communist authorities. By 1975, he was editing an underground literary periodical called Zapis (The Record). He lived in Western Europe for several years, returning to Poland in 1981. Martial law was imposed soon after he arrived, and he did not manage to leave again for several months. He now divides his time between Paris and Houston, Texas, where he teaches at the University of Houston for part of each year.

Major Works

Zagajewski first came to prominence in Eastern European literary circles for attacking the generation of Polish poets that preceded him. As a member of a literary movement called the New Wave, he argued that poetry should address the social and political needs of the present day. In 1974 he and Julian Kornhauser published Swiat nie przedstawiony (The World Not Represented), a collection of essays criticizing older authors for endorsing an abstract, contemplative poetry that failed to do enough to change the totalitarian regime in Poland. Zagajewski maintained that poetry should remain focused on the "here and

now," and he advocated for a direct and unambiguous poetic language to represent the truth about current conditions in Poland. Straight talk would, he believed, undo or subvert the traditional "double-speak" of the communist party. This kind of language characterizes his first two collections of poetry, Komunikat (1972; Bulletin) and Śklespy miesne (1975; Meat Market).

Following the imposition of martial law and the beginning of his exile in Paris, Zagajewski began what Adam Kirsch called his "flight from history." He became increasingly concerned with defining a mission for poetry that encompassed, rather than served, politics. Tremor: Selected Poems (1985) includes the poems he wrote during his first few years in Paris. His first book translated into English, Tremor transcends the poetry of protest and confronts the multiplicity of individual experience. During the 1980s and 90s, his poetry became increasingly contemplative and metaphysical. In an essay published in Solidarity, Solitude (1990), Zagajewski writes "We have to conquer totalitarianism in passing, on our way to greater things …"; his focus shifted from the limitations of a communist regime to the psychological, moral, and spiritual restrictions on human existence. The poetry in Canvas (1991) displays a fascination with the mysterious or divine aspects of people. Here Zagajewski expresses his frustration with our conceptual development, rather than our political progress, as he writes of "dreams of imagination / homeless and mad." The theme of imaginative alienation continues in Mysticism for Beginners (1997). In these poems, Zagajewski attempts to restore mystery and ecstasy to modern poetry, as he expresses the conflict between his urge to accept the world and his impulse to flee from it.

Critical Reception

The arc of Zagajewski's career, from politics to mysticism, has shaped the critical debate about his poetry. In an introduction to Tremor, Czeslaw Milosz observed that protest poetry is "noble-minded, but often one-dimensional," and he praised Zagajewski for moving beyond political poetry. Most critics have echoed this praise, though all agree that history and politics retain an important role in his work. Scholar and poet Stanislaw Baranczak states that the historical context "cannot really be subtracted from Zagajewski's poems." Poet Robert Pinsky considers Zagajewski's view a recreation of the historical within the mundane, stating that it's "an immense, sometimes subtle force inhering in what people see and feel every day." Critic Adam Kirsch points to Zagajewski's interest in mysticism as "the natural consummation of the private, the ahistorical," emphasizing Zagajewski's synthesis of the concrete and factual with other, more personal opinions.

Zagajewski's poetry has frequently been compared to the work of English metaphysical poets such as John Donne, who often transformed sensual imagery into abstract metaphor. One critic, Eva Hoffman, admires his quest for transcendence that frequently begins with a concrete image: "The movement from a specificity of physical images to a moment of abstraction is characteristic of Mr. Zagajewski's poetry; it corresponds to his delight in the sensuous surfaces of things and his urge toward a disembodied, spiritual insight and for a breaking out of the self." Several critics have observed that Zagajewski's work celebrates the process of discovery, and the theme of transcendence may be what connects politics and metaphysics in his poetry. By contemplating people confined by the social and political constructs that evolved throughout history, he arrives at a deeper and more abstract understanding of the human experience. "Zagajewski may be looking at Eastern Europe," Steven Birkerts writes, "but his gaze wraps itself around the whole globe."

Principal Works

(Poetry Criticism)


Komunikat 1972 [Bulletin]

Śklespy miesne 1975 [Meat Market]

List: Oda do wielo ci 1983

Jechać do Lwowa 1985

Tremor: Selected Poems 1985

Plotnó 1990 [Canvas, 1991]

Mysticism for Beginners 1997

Other Works

Swiat nie przedstawiony [with Julian Kornhauser] (essays) 1974 [The World Not Represented]

Cieplo, zimno (novel) 1975

Drugi oddech (essays) 1978

Cienka kreska (novel) 1983

Solidarność i samotność (essays) 1990 [Solidarity, Solitude, 1990]

Dwa miasta (essays) 1991 [Two Cities: On Exile, History, and the imagination 1995]

Czeslaw Milosz (essay date 1985)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: Introduction to Tremor: Selected Poems, by Adam Zagajewski, Farrar Straus Giroux, 1985, pp. xi-xii.

[In the following introduction to the first English translation of Zagajewski's poems, Milosz praises him for transcending protest poetry and admires "the steady increase of his creative powers."]

What a joy to see a major poet emerging from a hardly differentiated mass of contemporaries and taking the lead in the poetry of my language, a living proof that Polish literature is energy incessantly renewed against all probabilities! Born in 1945, Zagajewski belonged to the angry "generation of 1968" and started by satirizing both in his verse and in his prose the...

(The entire section is 491 words.)

Stanislaw Baranczak (essay date 1986)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Alone but Not Lonely," in The New Republic, Vol. 194, No. 1-2, January 6 & 13, 1986, pp. 39-41.

[In the following review of Tremor: Selected Poems, Baranczak argues that Zagajewski's use of irony raises his work beyond protest poetry.]

The first of many things that make Adam Zagajewski's poetry worthy of note is the author's birthdate: 1945. Thus far, America's acquaintance with the most recent Polish poetry (if we take only book-length selections of specific authors into account) has been limited to a few aging giants, now in their 60s or 70s, such as Czeslaw Milosz, Zbigniew Herbert, Tadeusz Rozewicz, or Wislawa Szymborska. Tremor is the...

(The entire section is 1403 words.)

Eva Hoffman (essay date 1986)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Remembering Poland," in The New York Times Book Review, February 16, 1986, pp. 14-15.

[In the following excerpt, Hoffman examines Zagajewski's sensuous imagery and abstract insights in Tremor: Selected Poems.]

…Adam Zagajewski, who has lived in Paris for the last few years and has emerged as one of the more noted poets of Poland's postwar generation, takes European culture as his native province, even as Mr. Herbert does. Many of his poems are reflections on actual figures—Beethoven, Schubert, Schopenhauer—or on moments in the past. And like Mr. Herbert he finds in civilization and art a solace for the ravages of history. Sometimes his poems seem written...

(The entire section is 519 words.)

D. J. Enright (essay date 1987)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Pure As a Peach," in The Times Literary Supplement, No. 4,382, March 27, 1987, p. 315.

[In the following review of Tremor: Selected Poems, Enright praises the poetry for its clarity and simplicity as well as its distinctive humor.]

Referring to the early writing of Adam Zagajewski (Polish, born in 1945, resident in Paris since 1981), Czeslaw Milosz remarks in his brief but weighty preface that the poetry of political commitment is "noble-minded, but often one-dimensional". The trouble with such poetry is that its message might as well be couched in prose, generally has been already, and, since the poetry soon vanishes out of the window, still is....

(The entire section is 1094 words.)

Sven Birkerts (essay date 1989)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Adam Zagajewski," in his The Electric Life: Essays on Modern Poetry, William Morrow and Company, 1989, pp. 423-31.

[In the following essay, Birkerts argues that rather than writing poetry determined by history, Txigajewski has developed a metaphysical imagery that expresses "our common exile from a comprehensible reality. "]

A recent review of Adam Zagajewski's Tremor (Renata Gorczynski, translator) by his fellow Polish émigré, the poet Stanislaw Baranczak, points up to me just how much historical context conditions the interpretive act. Baranczak, as a member of Zagajewski's poetic gen eration—the so-called generation of 1968—and who surely knows...

(The entire section is 2352 words.)

Stanislaw Baranczak (essay date 1991)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: Introduction to Polish Poetry of the Last Two Decades of Communist Rule: Spoiling Cannibal's Fun, Northwestern University Press, 1991, pp. 11-13.

[In the following excerpt from an introduction to a collection of Polish poetry, Baranczak argues that Zagajewski's reconciles individualism and moralism and calls this achievement "a unifying feature of whatever is most valuable in recent Polish poetry. "]

…The question of how to reconcile poetry's natural individualism with human solidarity and respect for supraindividual values is, in fact, the single most pressing issue that Polish poetry faced during the last decades of Communist rule. It was fascinating to...

(The entire section is 667 words.)

Donald Revell (essay date 1992)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "The Plural of Vision Remains Vision," in Ohio Review, Vol. 48, 1992, pp. 101-2, 108-11.

[In the following review, Revell praises Zagajewski for his "poetry of witness, " particularly for his ability to truthfully convey his vision.]

Poetry survives ideology because poetry is the body, the act, and the desire of an entirely stateless radicalism. By "stateless" I mean a condition of constant dispossession on behalf of the freedom of the real. Eurydice travels ahead of Orpheus. And by "radicalism" I mean a dedication to root experience which, of necessity, requires the preliminary experience of uprootedness. The waking of a poem uproots a dream from sleep. In the...

(The entire section is 1377 words.)

Joachim T. Baer (essay date 1992)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: A Review of Canvas, in World Literature Today, Vol. 66, No. 4, Autumn, 1992, pp. 746-47.

[In the following review of Canvas, Baer calls Zagajewski's metaphorical imagery "extraordinary" and suggests that he often writes his poetry as if in conversation with other poets and thinkers.]

In his wonderful book of essays Poetry and Experience (1961) Archibald MacLeish quotes Yeats's lines on the "ultimate meaning of which poetry is capable": "What is the meaning of all song?" Yeats proceeded to answer the question himself: "Let all things pass away." It is this stance, this position toward the world, which projects from the slim collection of...

(The entire section is 694 words.)

Robert Pinsky (essay date 1993)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Out of History," in The New Republic, Vol. 208, No. 4, January 25, 1993, pp. 43-45.

[In the following review of Canvas, Pinsky finds Zagajewski's poetic expression of an individual persona within a larger, historical context provides a "revealing mirror of contrasts" for American readers.]

Unlikely as it may seem, the poems of the Polish poet Adam Zagajewski, wonderful in themselves, may also suggest ways to think about American culture. Zagajewski's shrewd, clear, passionate poems have a distinctive way of touching the relation of historical reality to the lives of individuals, and to art. And because he writes in the language of a country that has...

(The entire section is 2022 words.)

Bill Marx (essay date 1993)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Gurus and Gadflies," in Parnassus, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1993, pp. 100-06.

[In the following excerpt, Marx claims that our expectations for poetry have changed since the end of the Cold War, and examines Zagajewski's poetry in relationship to this changing aesthetic]

With freedom comes the inevitable trip back to prison for Central European poets. Not the boxes created by a class, a party, or a dictator, but the dusty eater-corners used moral exemplars are bundled into. For decades in the West, Central European poets were chiefly admired for their heroism and tenacity—they were embodiments of our guilty fantasy that persecution is not only good for the soul but...

(The entire section is 2140 words.)

Charles Simic (essay date 1994)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: A Review of Canvas, in Partisan Review, Vol. 61, No. 4, Fall, 1994, pp. 704-8.

[In the following review, Simic suggests that Zagajewski explores the philosophical and imaginative homelessness of modern men and women.]

… When Adam Zagajewski's selected poems were first published in English in 1985, it was clear that he was a major poet. Tremor was a book that reminded one of other great contemporary Polish poets, Milosz, Herbert and Szymborska, especially in its preoccupation with history and its love of irony. It was equally clear, however, that Zagajewski is an original voice. This new, well-translated collection confirms it. His subject, if...

(The entire section is 515 words.)

Jaroisaw Anders (essay date 1998)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "Between Fire and Sleep," in Los Angeles Times Book Review, February 1, 1998, p. 6

[In the following review, Anders suggests that in Mysticism for Beginners Zagajewski understands the contradictions intrinsic to modern mystical poetry but demonstrates that poetry can still transcend irony.]

In the title poem of this remarkable volume by Polish poet Adam Zagajewski, the author takes us to an Italian town (Montepulciano in Tuscany) where, among the usual splendors of such places (the dusk "erasing the outlines of medieval houses," "olive trees on little hills," "stained-glass windows like butterfly wings"), he suddenly confesses his belief that the world...

(The entire section is 1682 words.)

Adam Kirsch (essay date 1998)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: "The Lucid Moment," in The New Republic, Vol. 218, No. 12, March 23, 1998, pp. 36-40.

[In the following essay, Kirsch considers Myticism for Beginners in relation to Zagajewski's early work and compares his "philosophical wit" with the imagery of metaphysical poets such as John Donne.]

A poetry of mysticism, now? For a mystic of the seventeenth century, for Vaughan or Traherne, the object of mysticism was the old one, the obvious one: God, or Christ. For a Romantic neo-Platonist such as Shelley, the object was less clear, but still plausible: the Idea, the great pattern hidden from human sight. But if Romanticism was spilt religion, today the spill has...

(The entire section is 4207 words.)

John Haines (essay date 1998)

(Poetry Criticism)

SOURCE: A Review of Mysticism for Beginners, in The Hudson Review, Vol. LI, No. 3, Autumn, 1998, pp. 609-11.

[In the following excerpt, Haines praises the historical consciousness, and the concentrated imagery of the poems in Mysticism for Beginners.]

…To turn from Stafford's poems to the Polish poet Adam Zagajewski2 is to depart from a familiar terrain and enter another space altogether, strangely removed from our still coherent neighborhoods:

Europe is already sleeping, Night's animals,
mournful and rapacious
move in for the kill.
Soon America will be sleeping...

(The entire section is 787 words.)

Further Reading

(Poetry Criticism)


Ascherson, Neal. "'How to Leave a House of Slavery.'" The New York Review of Books XXXVIII, No. 14 (August 15, 1991): 17-20.

Considers Zagajewski's career in relation to changes in Poland and its intellectual culture since the end of the Cold War.

Gorczynski, Renata. "A Vindication of Being." Parnassus 14, No. 1 (1987), p. 77-78.

Calls Zagajewski an able and original heir to Polish masters such as Czeslaw Milosz and Zbigniew Herbert.

Levine, Madeline G. A review of Tremor: Selected Poems. The Partisan Review 57, No. 1...

(The entire section is 169 words.)