What are three examples of foreshadowing in 1984?

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One example of paradox in 1984 is Winston's belief that the proles are the only truly revolutionary class and that only they are capable of overthrowing the regime. On the contrary, the proles are not politically active. When not procreating, they spend most of their time drinking, fighting, and playing the lottery.

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Foreshadowing occurs continually in this novel. Three examples of it are Syme's vaporization, O'Brien's grimness when Julia and Winston visit him in his flat, and the mention of the men who frequent The Chestnut Tree Cafe.

Winston, thinking about Syme's inevitable fate, ruminates on the cafe:

There was no law, not even an unwritten law, against frequenting the Chestnut Tree Cafe, yet the place was somehow ill-omened. The old, discredited leaders of the Party had been used to gather there before they were finally purged.

Syme frequents the cafe, which, along with his intellectual curiosity and passion for his dictionary work, foreshadows his disappearance. Syme is too intelligent and freethinking to survive long in Oceania. However, Syme's visits to the cafe, as well as the discredited party leaders, also foreshadow Winston's visits to the cafe after he is released from prison at the end of the novel. Winston remembers having actually seen the old rebels there, and what he says about them is a mirror of what will be his own end:

But also they were outlaws, enemies, untouchables, doomed with absolute certainty to extinction within a year or two. No one who had once fallen into the hands of the Thought Police ever escaped in the end. They were corpses waiting to be sent back to the grave.

At the end of the novel, we don't have to be told what will happen to Winston: the passage above has already explained it.

The lyrics of the Chestnut Tree song also foreshadow the way Julia and Winston will betray each other under torture:

Under the spreading chestnut tree
I sold you and you sold me

Syme's disappearance is foreshadowed not only by his visits to the cafe, but Winston's reflections that there is something:

subtly wrong with Syme. There was something that he lacked: discretion, aloofness, a sort of saving stupidity.

When Syme does disappear, we are not in the least surprised.

When Julia and Winston arrive at O'Brien's apartment, Winston notes that:

his expression was grimmer than usual, as though he were not pleased at being disturbed. The terror that Winston already felt was suddenly shot through by a streak of ordinary embarrassment. It seemed to him quite possible that he had simply made a stupid mistake. For what evidence had he in reality that O’Brien was any kind of political conspirator?

Winston should feel both terror and embarrassment. O'Brien's grim demeanor and Winston's correct thought that he has made a mistake both foreshadow the horror that is to descend on Julia and Winston.

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Orwell utilizes things from the past, fears, and dreams as foreshadowing in his seminal work, 1984.

Here, then, are three examples of foreshadowing:

  • Things from the past

1. Winston's purchase of a diary in a secondhand store in the prole district foreshadows his later arrest because if this diary is found, he will suffer the consequences. While there are no longer any laws making his act illegal, Winston could still be killed.

...if detected it was reasonably certain that it would be punished by death, or at least twenty-five years in a forced-labor camp. (I, Ch. 1)

In addition, Winston writes subversive thoughts in his diary, thoughts such as "DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER." 

2. While visiting the shop of Mr. Charrington, where he purchases the diary, Winston sees a picture of St. Clements Dane. Along with the rhyme that Charrington partially recites, there is the ending rhyme whose final phrase foreshadows the defeat of Winston and Julia--"...here comes a chopper to chop off your head." Also, the picture itself later what covers the telescreen in their room where Winston and Julia meet and make love.

  • Fears and Dreams

Winston fears his impending death because he writes in his diary and because he engages in a love affair with Julia. 

Folly, folly, his heart kept saying: conscious, gratuitous suicidal folly! Of all the crimes that a Party member could commit, this one was the least possible to conceal. (II, Ch.4)

3. Winston is terrified of rats. When one pokes its head through a hole in the wall of their secret room, Julia throws a shoe at it. Winston asks her at what she pitched her shoe, and she tells him that it was a rat. "Rats!....In this room!" Winston exclaims in terror as he recalls a nightmare which includes Julia:

He was standing in front of a wall of darkness, and on the other side of it there was something unendurable, something too dreadful to be faced....(II, Ch.4)

This dream, of course, foreshadows Winston's torture in Room 101, and the cage of rats that O'Brien threatens to unleash upon him after his arrest. Winston is so terrified that he betrays Julia.

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I think one of the major examples you can think about and analyze is the use of dreams in this excellent, terrifying novel. A very important chapter for you to think about as far as dreams are concerned in Chapter 3, where Winston has a dream sequence concerning his Mother and Sister, but then also this dream moves on to include Julia:

The girl with dark hair was coming towards them across the field. With what seemed a single movement she tore off her clothes and flung them disdainfully aside... What overwhelmed him in that instant was admiration for the gesture with which she had thrown her clothes aside. With its grace and carelessness it seemed to annihilate a whole culture, a whole system of thought...

This dream then clearly foreshadows their sexual relationship, and also the way that they are, by their actions, trying to "annihilate a whole culture" by rebelling in such a way and embracing their true human desires and passions. Of course, it is only later on that they find out how futile this attempt is.

There is one example of foreshadowing. Now have another look at the novel and see if you can find some more. Good luck!

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Foreshadowing happens when an author includes something in a story (a line, a phrase, and image) that gives a hint of what the eventual outcome of the story will be.

In 1984, there are many of these, at various points along the way. If you know the song that Winston is singing/trying to remember throughout the book, then that's one of them, because of the final line.

Others occur throughout the book, starting in the first chapter. Think of the slogan Big Brother is Watching You. He was watching Winston. Or the discussion of the Ministry of Love. The extra time spent describing this in the first chapter lets you know it will be important, and that Winston will eventually be part of the "official business" taking people inside.

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What are some examples of paradox in 1984?

As the Party slogan has it, "Proles and animals are free." Whereas members of the Outer Party, like Winston, are subject to constant surveillance through telescreens, the proles are pretty much left to their own devices. The Party doesn't care to observe them, believing that they lack the kind of revolutionary potential that would make them a clear and present threat to the regime. Instead, the proles are palmed off with bread and circuses to keep them happy: lottery tickets, soccer, and copious amounts of cheap booze.

Yet, in one of the book's many paradoxes, Winston Smith actually believes the proles to be the only group in society capable of effecting revolutionary change, of overthrowing the Party once and for all. The reason for this is that Winston regards the proles as still having enough of the human in them to bring about change. Whereas everyone else in society has been reduced to the status of a robot, the relative freedom that the proles enjoy has inadvertently preserved within them the characteristics necessary for demanding an end to one-party rule.

Crucially, the proles also preserve Oldspeak, the form of language that existed prior to the revolution. It is this connection with the past that further makes the proles ideal revolutionaries in Winston's eyes. Yet, paradoxically, the proles remain blissfully unaware of their vast revolutionary potential.

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What are some examples of paradox in 1984?

A paradox is an illogical or contradictory statement. Sometimes, in their seeming illogic, paradoxes illuminate truths.

Party slogans in 1984 illustrate paradox. Here are some examples:

WAR IS PEACE

FREEDOM IS SLAVERY

IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH

Obviously, war cannot be peace and neither can freedom be slavery. Through these self-contradictory, and hence paradoxical, slogans, Orwell parodies or makes fun of similar political slogans from the twentieth-century, especially those produced by totalitarian governments.

It is also a paradox that the ministry he works for is called the Ministry of Truth when, in fact, its function is to produce lies. Winston creates lies on a daily basis as he rewrites history. Likewise, the Ministry of Love is a place of torture and hate.

O'Brien's insistence that two plus two equals five if the Party says so is a paradox as well. Totalitarian governments operate on the premise that they can use their power to bend truth to their wills, but the logic of history has shown this tactic not to work. Through O'Brien's insistence that a basic mathematical truth can be bent to serve power, Orwell shows the absurdity of his position. Winston may be tortured into believing this, but that doesn't make this illusion true.

Orwell is encouraging readers through the Party's paradoxes to take a hard look at the contradictions and absurdities promoted as truth by those in power in our own society and not simply swallow them. The truth 1984's paradoxes illuminate is that the passing off of lies as truth happens in our own culture too.

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What are some examples of paradox in 1984?

George Orwell’s futuristic novel 1984 details the Party’s efforts to completely remake its citizens by destroying their ambitions and emotional attachments and replacing them with the Party’s goals. The main character, Winston Smith, realizes that the Party is destroying his individuality and tries, unsuccessfully, to rebel.

Orwell mentions a place called the “Ministry of Love” several times in the book before the reader ever actually sees what goes on there. Citizens suspect that it is a place where non-compliant citizens are taken for torture and interrogation for the purpose of punishment and information retrieval. They are correct about the torture and interrogation, but not about the reason for it.

A paradox is something that appears to contradict reason or expectation. The paradox here lies in the name “Ministry of Love.” Such a name implies that it should be a place that creates or administers love in some way, not a place that uses pain and humiliation to remake citizens. During Winston’s interrogation and brainwashing process, O’Brien reveals the true mission of the Ministry of Love:

By the time we had finished with them they were only the shells of men. There was nothing left in them except the sorrow for what they had done, and love of Big Brother.

Their goal is a bit of a paradox itself. To create this love of Big Brother, they must also eliminate love for anything else, so the Party goes to great pains to keep its people from forming loving relationships by stoking suspicion of others and blind adherence to Party goals.

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What are some examples of paradox in 1984?

In an essay entitled “Politics and the English Language,” Orwell says much about the way the society of 1984 uses language. In that essay he also argues that our society now, as his then, has used it so loosely, not adhering to the true meaning of words but using them instead for political purposes or other purposes of persuasion, such as advertising. Because language is used to persuade and then eventually to lie, argues Orwell, it has become “decadent,” and the extreme form of this can be seen in the paradoxes the other respondent has provided. To help you understand these, you might consider some of the ways that language is used in our own political arena, such as when we are told “we must go to war to make peace.” The link below will lead you to Orwell’s essay. You might also look at some of the criticism eNotes provides on Orwell to answer your interesting question.

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In George Orwell's novel 1984, what are some examples of metaphors, similes, and irony?

For an example of a simile, take a look at the first chapter of the book in which Winston is describing the appearance of the telescreen:

The voice came from an oblong metal plaque like a dulled mirror.

By using this simile, Orwell successfully conveys the appearance of the telescreen to the reader thus giving them a glimpse into Winston's world.

For an example of a metaphor, take a look at chapter five. In this example, Winston describes the room that he is renting with Julia. To emphasize how liberating it is to be in this room, he compares it to a different world:

The room was a world, a pocket of the past where extinct animals could walk.

In other words, this room gives Winston a sense of freedom, and it reminds him of a different era, one before the Party came to power.

Finally, for an example of irony, consider the character of Julia. When she meets with Winston in the woods in chapter two, for example, she is wearing the sash of the Junior Anti-Sex League around her waist. She then proceeds to tear off the sash and have sex with Winston. This act is ironic because the sash is supposed to be symbolic of her dedication to chastity.

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In George Orwell's novel 1984, what are some examples of metaphors, similes, and irony?

Metaphors, similes, and irony occur often in George Orwell's novel 1984, but in one sentence early in the first chapter, all three of these techniques occur together. The sentence, actually a sentence fragment, poses a question about Winston Smith's unattractive surroundings:

And the bombed sites where the plaster dust swirled in the air and the willow herb straggled over the heaps of rubble; and the places where the bombs had cleared a larger path and there had sprung up sordid colonies of wooden dwellings like chicken houses?

In this sentence, the phrase "sordid colonies" is a metaphor since it compares the dwellings to colonies without using the words "like" or "as."

A simile appears in the phrase "dwellings like chicken houses."

An example of irony appears when the narrator reports that "bombs had cleared a larger path." Bombs, usually considered and intended to be destructive, have in this case ironically proved helpful in making space for new construction.

This passage also repeats a motif that has already been well established in the novel by this point: the statement that "plaster dust swirled in the air" is just the latest of several references so far to swirling grime, dirt, or dust, suggesting that the world of the novel is unclean in more ways than one.

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What are some examples of allusion from 1984?

A great example of allusion in 1984 comes in the shape of the Junior Spies, a group of children who show their fanatical loyalty to the regime by informing on suspected traitors. If they see any signs of treachery or misconduct among members of the public—even members of their own family—they will report them immediately to the authorities.

This can be seen as an allusion to similar practices that existed in real-life totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. In the former, boys and girls were formed into the Hitler Youth and the League of German Maidens, organizations designed to indoctrinate children with official state propaganda. The Soviet Union had the Komsomol, a Communist youth organization which served much the same purpose as its German counterparts.

It was in the Soviet Union, however, that informing on suspected traitors was much more common among children. As the totalitarian regime of Oceania is based on that of the USSR, it's not surprising to see Orwell using the Junior Spies as an allusion to what went on under Stalin.

It's no exaggeration to say that many adults in the Soviet Union became wary of their children, afraid of what they might say to the authorities. In 1984, it's noticeable that Mrs. Parsons is scared stiff of her over-zealous children, especially after she won't let them go to a public hanging.

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What are some examples of allusion from 1984?

Some of the allusions that Orwell employs in 1984 are meant to deliberately contrast the world of Oceania with the reader's reality.  In employing these allusions, Orwell is able to make vital statements about Oceania and the condition of what is and what should never be.  

One set of allusions early in the text can be found in Part I, Chapter 3.  The first one is an allusion to Shakespeare.  Winston wakes up from a dream in which various images of his mother and a naked woman, and utters "Shakespeare:"

With its grace and carelessness it seemed to annihilate a whole culture, a whole system of thought, as though Big Brother and the Party and the Thought Police could all be swept into nothingness by a single splendid movement of the arm. That too was a gesture belonging to the ancient time. Winston woke up with the word 'Shakespeare' on his lips. 

The allusion to Shakespeare is deliberate. Shakespeare wrote about the complexities of emotion and the ambiguities that exist within the human predicament.  Shakespeare writes of a world where there is complete disunity and a sense of complication in everything human.  This is not the world of Big Brother, where human freedom and endeavor have been reduced to the smallest of quotients.  Shakespeare depicts a world in which tragic collisions construct what it means to be human.  The allusion is deliberate because the world of Big Brother has removed all such human expressions and replaced them with consolidation of centralized power.

A socio- historical allusion can be seen in the same chapter when Orwell is describing the perpetual state of war.  Oceania is described as a setting where one cannot recall a time of peace:  "Since about that time, war had been literally continuous, though strictly speaking it had not always been the same war."  The fact that wars are "invented' in other settings and are continuous is an allusion to the Cold War that emerged at the time of Orwell's writing. The Cold War allusion helps to illuminate the centralized tendency of Oceanic government.  In being able to continually declare wars, dissent and personal expression are negated in the name of perpetual conflict. War represents the strength of the state.  Orwell's allusion to Cold War politics helps to underscore how the novel speaks to a modern condition where nations declare war as exercises of power for control over their populace, as opposed to endeavors of peace.

In Part III, Chapter 2, Winston experiences the full power of centralized control. When he is tortured in Room 101 at O'Brien's hands in order to reeducate him, Winston makes an allusion to Descartes:

'I think I exist,' he said wearily. 'I am conscious of my own identity. I was born and I shall die. I have arms and legs. I occupy a particular point in space. No other solid object can occupy the same point simultaneously. In that sense, does Big Brother exist?' 

Prior to this, O'Brien had referenced that Winston is not a "metaphysician." The allusion to philosophy in this section is deliberate.  Cartesian notions of philosophy have served as the basis for Western liberal thought.  They helped to establish personal freedom and space free from external encroachment.  In Room 101, there is no personal freedom and nothing but encroachment. O'Brien emphasizes to Winston that there is no freedom and only what Big Brother demands.  As with the allusion to Shakespeare, it is effective in displaying the world of Oceania and illuminating a world that terrifies the reader's sensibilities.

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What are three examples of irony in 1984?

The novel abounds with irony, and specifically the names and functions of different institutions convey irony in an intentional manner. The Ministry of Love, for example, is a place where prisoners are tortured in the process of interrogation.

It is also ironic that Julia, a member of the Anti-Sex League, wears a red sash (red being a potent visual symbol often associated with sexuality), and furthermore she turns out to be sexually assertive and adventurous in her relationship with Winston.

The ultimate irony is that Winston, a symbol of rebellion and protest, is ultimately bested by the system he hates and fights against, and at last is made to see the world in the topsy-turvy, nonsensical way the novel describes; this becomes clear when he admits that he loves Big Brother.

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What are three examples of irony in 1984?

Winston Smith enters "Victory Mansions," yet there is no victory for him, and no lasting victory for anyone except Big Brother in the novel.

The Ministry of Truth dedicates itself to destroying truth.

Its slogans are deeply ironic.

The names of the other ministries are similarly ironic: the Ministry of Love handles torture.

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What are some examples of foreshadowing in 1984?

1984 is a book that, from its earliest pages, creates an oppressive feeling in the mind of its reader. In answering this particular question, I'll be drawing on a few examples which can found in its first chapter, but which prove to be of critical importance much later in the book.

First, consider that when Orwell first discusses the Ministries, Winston notes:

The Ministry of Love was the really frightening one. There were no windows in it at all. Winston had never been inside the Ministry of Love, nor within half a kilometer of it. It was a place impossible to enter except on official business, and then only by penetrating through a maze of barbed-wire entanglements, steel doors, and hidden machine-gun nests. Even the streets leading up to its outer barriers were roamed by gorilla-faced guards in black uniforms, armed with jointed truncheons.

This memorable passage stresses the oppressive elements of the Ministry of Love in vivid detail (and note that, far more than any of the other Ministries, this is the one which awakens horror for Winston). The Ministry of Love will later be critical to the events of 1984's final book, where Winston himself will be taken to the Ministry of Love to be tortured and broken by the State.

Orwell's use of foreshadowing extends into the realm of characterization. A very different form of foreshadowing can be found in Orwell's introduction of O'Brien, also found in the first chapter:

A momentary hush passed over the group of people round the chairs as they saw the black overalls of an Inner Party member approaching. O'Brien was a large, burly man with a thick neck and a coarse, humorous, brutal face. In spite of his formidable appearance he had a certain charm of manner. He had a trick of resettling his spectacles on his nose which was curiously disarming—in some indefinable way, curiously civilized.

This physical description actually mirrors much of O'Brien's true personality, hidden beneath the friendly facade which he presents to Winston. He pretends to be a member of the Brotherhood, but in fact, he is a loyal Party Member. O'Brien is depicted as simultaneously highly intelligent (we see this in his conversation with O'Brien, and his depth of understanding concerning the Party's goals and methods, emerging as a walking incarnation of its nihilistic message). But he is also extremely brutal, as shown by the way he mercilessly tortures Winston. In this introductory description, Orwell draws attention to those two key facets which shape his character: physical brutality joined with an intellectual civility. Thus, his physical description mirrors the true personality which lies beneath his deception.

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What are some examples of foreshadowing in 1984?

One particularly effective example of foreshadowing comes after Winston writes down the highly subversive thought "Down with Bog Brother!" in his diary. This isn't just a collection of words; this is a thought crime, for which Winston could end up in serious trouble.

Not long after committing this risky act of subversion, Winston enters into Mrs. Parsons's apartment, where her two children are playing a game in which they chase each other around, shouting "traitor!" and "thought criminal!"

The children's game foreshadows Winston's fate later on in the story when he will be accused of being a traitor and a thought criminal. As soon as he hears the children screaming these words, Winston starts feeling paranoid, worried sick that at any moment he will be arrested and vaporized for crimes against the Party.

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What are some examples of foreshadowing in 1984?

There are many layers of foreshadowing in 1984, some more subtle than others. A very straightforward example is Winston's strong associations with certain events that he cannot place, like the woman covering the boy in the theater or the smell of chocolate. These events are foreshadowing because they eventually add up to Winston remembering his long-repressed memory of hoarding a chocolate ration from his mother and sister.

A more subtle example comes in the form of song lyrics:

Under the spreading chestnut tree,

I sold you and you sold me

This is a foreboding reference to the Chestnut Tree Cafe, where George has his final encounter with two men before they are unpersoned, or erased from existence. "Sold" is a reference to the idiom "sold out", which means "betrayed," or, in this case, informed on to Big Brother.

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What is an example of parody and irony in 1984? 

1984 can be seen as a parody of the scientific utopias, such as H.G. Wells's Men Like Gods, which were popular in the early twentieth century. Such novels emphasized the benefits of science and technology in creating increasingly civilized societies, the citizens of which would enjoy a degree of freedom and leisure hitherto unimagined. 1984 describes a society in which technology has brought no benefit at all to the average citizen, and has only enabled the tyranny of the state. The omnipresent telescreens have facilitated a sharp decrease in personal freedom, and fields are still ploughed by hand while books are written by machines. In place of the gleaming alabaster city promised in utopian fantasies, there is the grim, decaying, filthy city of London.

The book is full of irony, particularly in the euphemistic titles of the government ministries: The Ministry of Truth pumps out lies, the Ministry of Plenty causes famines, the Ministry of Peace wages war, and the Ministry of Love deals in torture. Orwell's wit is generally in this dry, satirical vein, and he is particularly fond of pointing out the constant hypocrisy required by life under the Party. His descriptions of Julia's apparent purity and orthodoxy, contrasted with her loathing of the Party and voracious sexual appetite in private, provide several moments of comic irony. For instance, Julia is able surreptitiously to use the sash of the Junior Anti-Sex League to increase her sex appeal:

The emblem of the Junior Anti-Sex League was wound several times around the waist of her overalls, just tightly enough to bring out the shapeliness of her hips.

It is in such incongruities, resulting from harsh political repression, that most of the comedy in the novel is to be found.

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