Atkins, John. George Orwell: A Literary Study. London: Calder and Boyars, 1971. A long and detailed account of Orwell’s climb to maturity as a political writer. Because it was written in 1954, this book presents a dated perspective on Orwell’s work.
Gardner, Averil. George Orwell. Boston: Twayne, 1987. Examines Orwell’s novels, his longer nonfiction, and his essays for theme, recurrent motifs, and critical response. Includes a chronology, an extended bibliography, and an index.
Hynes, Samuel, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of “1984”: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Offers both favorable and negative criticism and the particular angles of many different critics. The chapters are reviews, essays, and viewpoints; even a letter from Aldous Huxley to Orwell is included.
Lee, Robert A. Orwell’s Fiction. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969. A chronicle of the development of Orwell’s career as a novelist. Themed sections include Orwell’s look at poverty and the stricken individual, social strife, and his apocalyptic vision as expressed in Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Williams, Raymond, ed. George Orwell: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974. A chronological arrangement of essays on the development of Orwell’s writing. A study of not only Orwell’s development over time but also the impact of his work over time, with essays from writers of three generations.
Bibliography and Further Reading
Quotations from 1984 are taken from the following edition:
Orwell, George. 1984. Afterword by Erich Fromm. New York: Signet, 1992. In addition, Fromm’s Afterword was indispensable to this study.
Alldritt, Keith. The Making of George Orwell. London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1969.
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. “The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984,” in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 47-56.
Bloom, Harold, ed. George Orwell: Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.
Christgau, Robert. “Writing for the People,” in The Village Voice, February 1, 1983, pp. 54–5.
Crick, Bernard. George Orwell: A Life. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1980.
Esslin, Martin. “Television and Telescreen,” in On Nineteen Eighty-Four, edited by Peter Stansky. W. H. Freeman & Co., 1983, pp. 126-38.
Gertrude Clarke Whittall Poetry and Literature Fund. George Orwell & Nineteen Eighty-Four. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Gottlieb, Erika. The Orwell Conundrum: A Cry of Despair or Faith in the Spirit of Man? Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1992.
Hammond, J. R. A George Orwell Companion—A Guide to the Novels, Documents, and Essays. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Howe, Irving. “1984: Enigmas of Power,” in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century, edited by Irving Howe. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 3-18.
Howe, Irving, ed. 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.
Kalechofsky, Roberta. George Orwell. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1973.
Myers, Valerie. George Orwell. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.
Smith, Marcus. “The Wall of Blackness: A Psychological Approach to 1984,” in Modern Fiction Studies, Winter, 1968-69, pp. 42-33.
Watt, Ian. “Winston Smith: The Last Humanist,” in On Nineteen Eighty-Four. W. H. Freeman, 1983, pp. 103-13.
Woodcock, George. The Crystal Spirit: A Study of George Orwell. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1966.
Wykes, David. A Preface to Orwell. London & New York: Longman Group, Ltd., 1987.
For Further Reading
Chilton, Paul, and Aubrey Crispin, eds. Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984. Comedia Publishing Group, 1983. Collection of essays focusing on the relevance of Orwell’s novel in contemporary political and social life.
College Literature, Vol. XI, No. 1, 1984, pp. 1-113. Issue devoted to studies of 1984.
Gross, Miriam, ed. The World of George Orwell. Simon & Schuster, 1972. Collection of critical and biographical essays.
Kazin, Alfred. “Not One of Us,” in The New York Review of Books
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