This is a great question! In the works that you mentioned (Crito, Meno, and Apology) the aspect of Socrates that stands out the most to me is the function of conscientious objector, or someone who acts out of civil disobedience. Socrates was one of our earlier records of a person being in trouble with the law for following his convictions, and then submitting to the punishment the law imposed. Socrates was convicted in the Apology of “corrupting the youth of Athens” by supposedly leading them to question the validity of authority. Socrates professed that he only asked questions and did not teach anyone, and in his search for truth it seemed not plausible to him that he could cease doing that.
Because Socrates’s civil disobedience was due to personal convictions and not particularly because he wanted to see laws change, I believe the closest individual who has functioned similarly in our recent history in the US is Ms. Kim Davis. Ms. Davis is the clerk in Rowan County, Kentucky, who ended up in jail because she conscientiously objected to signing marriage licenses for same-sex couples. Like Socrates, she did not resist arrest, but in her defenses at court and in writing she has indicated that it is her core beliefs and convictions that are propelling her refusal to submit to governmental direction. Like Socrates in Crito, who spent his time in jail usefully dialoguing about the right course of action, she has spent countless hours attempting to establish a social dialogue about how the laws deal with personal conviction, whether philosophical or religious.
The end of the Meno has Anytus warning Socrates that he is treading on dangerous ground. Although I am not aware that Ms. Davis was warned by anyone that she was in danger of going to jail for her actions, she undoubtedly knew that was a possibility.
Though these individuals both started out only following what they believed to be right, they ended up starting a social conversation. I’m sure a more thorough defense of the similarities between Ms. Davis’s actions and those of Socrates is possible with a bit more reading. I have included some helpful links below.