The effects of ancient Greece and its advanced civilization still can be found throughout the world today. After their conquest by the Romans, their ideas and influences were spread throughout the Roman Empire. Among the greatest Greek cultural influences were:
- Philosophy. The great Greek philosophers, particularly Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, were the first to focus on reason and scientific discipline.
- Mathematics. Many theories first advanced by Greeks such as Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes are still being used today.
- Science. Greeks were the first to study astronomy, and Hippocrates is still called the "father of medicine."
- Literature. The Greeks made lyric and epic poetry their own. Giants such as Homer and Sappho defined their genres, and later writers such as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripedes refined the art of playwrighting, while Aristophanes became the first great comic playwright.
- Art and Architecture. Ancient Greece's influence is still seen throughout the world, in part due to Alexander the Great's vast conquests that combined the various cultures of Asia, India and the Middle East. Greek pottery and sculpture, originally meant for everyday use and not specifically for display, is among the most revered in the world. Greek architecture, particularly their temples and columns, have been copied for centuries.