Regrettably, I had to pare down the question. When you post eight different questions in one, I would only advise you to repost some of the questions so that can get what it is that you need.
In terms of the overall audience of the essay, Paine is aiming it at both soldiers and colonists who are struggling with the outset of war against England. Being an ardent supported of colonial aims with the publication of Common Sense, Paine was already well-known. He understood that colonial confidence might have been waning in the early stages of the war, where British strength was the most intense. Paine's audience are the soldiers fighting for the Colonial cause. When he writes that "These are the times that try men's souls," it is a reflection of the reality that many Colonial soldiers and leaders are facing. He aims the document to this audience in convincing them that while the path they have chosen is long and arduous, it is one whereby there will be a greater good waiting for the colonists at the end. This becomes the primary purpose in aiming the work at the audience Paine intends.