How would one use the following birth and natality statistics to drive health care policy and develop a new vaccine program for infants in one's state:
- Number of births: 3,999,386
- Birth rate: 13.0 per 1,000 population
- Fertility rate: 64.1 births per 1000 women aged 15-44 years
- Percent born low birthweight: 8.1%
- Percent born preterm: 12.0%
- Percent unmarried: 40.8%
- Mean age at first birth: 25.4
How would one also use this information to compare population growth with other countries?
One important fact the data discloses is that 8.1% of babies are born low birthweight, while 12% are born preterm. One common concern is exactly what parents should do with respect to immunizations for low birthweight and preterm babies. Many parents worry that their immune systems are too delicate to tolerate vaccinations. As a result, many studies have been conducted to assess whether or not such infants should follow the normal infant immunization schedule. Researchers have concluded that for both preterm and low birthweight infants, due to the weakness of their immune systems, their are greater risks for such infants than normal infants to contract diseases that could otherwise be prevented through vaccinations, so immunizing such infants is absolutely critical. Researchers have also concluded that such infants show no more side effects from vaccines than normal infants. To review such research and determine what immunization schedule researchers recommend, you can use such articles as "Immunogenicity, Safety and Tolerability of Vaccinations in Premature Infants" published in Medscape Multispeciality and "Immunization of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants" published by the American Academy of Pediatrics. If you know researchers recommend that both preterm and low birthweight infants maintain the same immunization schedule as normal infants, you can use such information to develop a vaccine program promoting the need for preterm and low birthweight infants to be immunized on schedule, as well as advertise the needed vaccination schedule. For example, we know, based on the regular infant schedule, it is recommended that infants be vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth and given recurring vaccines at the ages of 1 to 2 months and again between the ages of 6 to 18 months; be vaccinated against rotavirus, a "major cause of diarrhea," starting at the age of 2 months and again at 4 months and 6 months; be vaccinated against diptheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough) starting at 2 months and again at 4 months, 6 months, between 15-18 months, and again between 4 to 6 years; be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenza type b, a leading cause of meningitis, at the age of 2 months and again at 4 months, 6 months, and between 12 to 15 months; be vaccinated against pneumococcal disease at 2 months and again at 4 months, 6 months, and between 12 to 15 months; be vaccinated against polio at 2 months and again at 4 months, between 6 months to 18 months, and between 4 to 6 years; be vaccinated against influenza yearly starting at 6 months to 4 to 6 years; be vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella at 12 months to 18 months and again between 4 to 6 years; be vaccinated against chickenpox between 12 and 15 months; and, finally, be vaccinated against hepatitis A between 12 months to 23 months (CDC, "2014 Recommended Immunizations for Children from Birth Through 6 Years Old"; "Vaccines Recommended for Infants"). And, again, you can use the known recommended immunization schedule to develop a new vaccine program promoting the need for even preterm and low birthweight babies to be immunized.
Another interesting fact your data reports is that 40.8% of babies are born to unmarried women. More importantly, it has also been reported that, during the mid- to late-2000s, 80% of single mothers live in poverty, of which only 27% are completely unemployed (Kaufmann, "This Week in Poverty: US Single Mothers--'The Worst Off'"). Therefore, another important fact to research that can affect the vaccine program you develop would be exactly how many low-income babies are given immunizations. As of 2009, it was reported that there was a large gap between low- and high-income families concerning receiving the "measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, hepatitis B immunization, and the chickenpox (varicella) vaccine," but the gap is now shrinking; there was no gap between those who received the polio vaccine; and, the gap between those who received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (DTaP) has widened by 0.4% ("More Low-Income Kids Are Getting Vaccinated"). Therefore, your new vaccine program could also focus on promoting the need for low-income children to receive the DTaP vaccine and address any issues concerning funding that stand in the way of receiving the DTaP vaccine.
Hi pls can some one help me answer this question , as soon as possible please nicely described how research can advance the delivery of health care services. Research can also drive health care policy.
Consider the following birth and natality statistics for the United States Number of births: 3,999,386 Birth rate: 13.0 per 1,000 population Fertility rate: 64.1 births per 1000 women aged 15-44 years Percent born low birthweight: 8.1% Percent born preterm: 12.0% Percent unmarried: 40.8% Mean age at first birth: 25.4 How would you use this data to develop a new vaccine program for infants in your state? How would you use this information to compare population growth with other countries? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2012). FastStats. Retrieved from