You find a puddle of a clear liquid on your driveway. it is either water, vinegar or battery acid from the car.
how can you safely test the liquid to determine its identity by describibg its physical and chemical properties for each thing
A clear liquid on a driveway could safely be tested by pouring baking soda on it. If it is vinegar or battery acid it will bubble up. If it is water it will do nothing. However, it will not tell you whether it is vinegar or battery acid.
Liquids have different attributes that can be used to identify what they may be:
Color can help determine a liquid. Since the liquid was clear we can rule out that helping solve the problem.
Odors are specific to certain liquids. Vinegar has a distinct odor. Battery acid has its own odor. Water is odorless.
Freezing point, liquids have different freezing points.
Boiling points, liquids have different boiling points.
Liquids have different densities.
Getting back to the difference between the three liquids; Battery acid is acidic and would gradually breakdown a simple material such as cloth. One could dip a small piece of cloth in the liquid and remove it. If the cloth begins to erode, it is battery acid.