Which countries had the WWII Axis powers taken control of by 1939?
It's a long list of countries who the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) had controlled by 1939. Formerly independent nations include:
Algeria, Albania (occupied by Italy April 7, 1939, by Germany September 26, 1943), China, Austria, Burma, Czechoslovakia (Bohemia and Moravia occupied by Germany March 15, 1939), Ethiopia, Finland (attacked by the Soviet Union November 30t, 1939 and June 26, 1941), India, Iran, Morocco, New Guinea, Philippines, Poland (invaded by Germany and the Soviet Union in September 1939), Singapore, Syria, and Thailand.
In 1936, Japan and Germany signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist alliance that Italy joined in 1937. In 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan (the Axis powers) signed the Tripartite Pact and pledged military assistance to each other. Later, other nations also joined the pact.
The Axis powers began to take over many nations. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia, and, in 1939, Italy made Albania a protectorate. Japan invaded Manchuria (in China) in 1931 and invaded Beijing in 1937. Japan also controlled Taiwan (since 1895) and Korea (since 1910). In 1937, Nazi Germany took over the Rhineland and then, in 1938, took over Austria and the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia). By the end of 1939, Nazi Germany also controlled Poland, the Memel Territory in Lithuania, and the rest of Czechoslovakia. When the Nazis took over Czechoslovakia, they created the Protectorate of Moravia and Bohemia and the nation of Slovakia.
By 1939 the Axis Powers had already taken control of several countries either through annexation or the establishment of puppet governments. Germany took control of Austria and Czechoslovakia before 1939 using the excuse that ethnic Germans lived in those areas and that they desired to unite with Germany--this was not always the case, as Austria and Czechoslovakia were not homogeneous in terms of population. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and was pressured to leave, but they set up the puppet state of Manchuko, thereby still ruling the area. Japan invaded China again later in the decade--by 1939 Japan controlled many Chinese port cities. Italy successfully invaded Albania and Ethiopia before 1939. It is important to note that all of these countries fell to the Axis Powers before the Axis consolidated their power with the Tripartite Pact in 1940. No powerful nation stood up to Germany, Japan, or Italy during their land grabs.
The answer posted above is partially misleading as it equates attack on or partial invasion of a country with controlling the countries.
Austria was annexed to Germany on March 13, 1938. This was really before the start of World War II. Similarly Ethiopia was also annexed by Italy in 1936, before the start of World War II. Ethiopia again became independent in 1941. Albania was initially occupied by Italy in April 1939 before start of World War. Later in September 1943 was occupied by Germany.
Bohemia and Moravia in Czechoslovakia were occupied by Germany in March 1939.
China and Japan have a long history of conflict, and as a part of this conflict the two countries were at war since 1931. But this war did not at any time result in Japan occupying substantial part of China.
Poland invaded by Germany in September 1939.
Finland was attacked bu USSR in November 1939, and June 1941.
Denmark and Norway invaded by Germany in April 1940.
Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg invaded by Germany in May 1940.
France surrendered to Germany in June 1940.
Japan occupies Northern Indochina in 1940. This region forms parts of Laos and Vietnam.
Greece was invaded by Italy in October 1940 and occupied by Germany in April 1941.
Estonia Occupied by USSR in June 1940. Germany occupied it in September 1941. It was re-annexed by USSR in 1944.
Iceland occupied by Great Britain in May 1940 and by USA in July 1941.
Yugoslavia occupied by Germany in April 1941.
Greenland occupied by U.S.A. in April 1941.
Thailand surrendered to Japan in December 1941.
Germany invaded eastern parts of USSR in June 1941 and completed the blockade of Leningrad in 1941. The last of the Germans in Stalingrad, USSR surrendered in February 1943.
Singapore and Philippines, occupied by Japan in February 1942.
Netherlands Indies occupied by Japan in March 1942.
Philippines occupied by Japan April 1942.
Most of Burma controlled by Japan by May 1942.
Tunisia Occupied by USA in 1943.
Italy secretly surrenders to the Allied forces September 1943.
Northeast frontier area of India invaded by Japan in early 1944.