Who are the five characters in "The Guest," and what are the inferences about them?
Inferences about each of these characters include the fact that the Arab is never given a name and is condemned for murder. The schoolmaster is disgusted by him and his crime and automatically assumes that the man is guilty without inquiring about his side of the story. He is considered dangerous, and moreover, the villagers where he lives seek to return him home. They hid him in their village for over a month after the crime which made the Arab's capture difficult. They may or may not be against Frenchmen (Daru's nationality) so it is urgent that Daru leave on the transport immediately.
Daru, the schoolmaster, finds that he is expected to transport the Arab to the nearest town. It is inferred that since there is a snowstorm and classes have been canceled, the schoolmaster will perform this civic duty as an employee of the government.
It is inferred that Balducci, the police officer who brings the Arab to Daru, is too important or too busy with other more important matters to deal with prisoner transport.
There are only 3 characters in the story: Daru, Balducci, and the Arab. You can read descriptions and analyses of each one in the eNotes study guide. You may be thinking that there are more characters because sometimes the author refers to them by their profession. For instance, Daru is the sometimes called "schoolmaster" and Balducci "gendarme," which is the French word for "policeman."
I've placed a link to the study guide in the Sources section below. I've also included a link to the critical overview of the story, which may help you with determining the inferences about each character.