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Both heredity and environment play an important role on student learning.
I agree with the previous responder in regards to nutrition, good schools and teachers, etc. They are play a very important role in student learning. Is what scares me is the nature of education today. There are many issues going on in education right now. Class sizes are becoming larger and teachers are losing their jobs. It makes me wonder what kind of education our children are receiving.
Heredity certainly plays a role. Sometimes there is a limited amount of academic skill to work with as a teacher. But I would give environment the upper hand. Nutrition, encouragement, good schools and teachers, early reading programs - what a student is surrounded by from an early age educationally often determines what kind of success they are capable of at later ages too.
This is the nature/nurture argument common to studies in psychology and education. Heredity and environment can both influence education profoundly and the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget studied child development in great detail, taking in these issues. He conducted very many experiments and studies involving young childrens learning styles so you may want to look at his work. Nature can influence education in the sense that genetic predisposition towards problem solving, analytic skills, intellectual curiosity,number aptitude and decoding skills can be passed down through the generations. However this is no good (in an academic sense) without access to sources of learning such as books,tv,internet,teachers,life experiences,museums and art galleries. This where nurture comes in. many educationalists believe that some kids have inherent intelligence but need a helping hand to maximise their potential as they have poor stimuli and learning pools to draw on at home or in their neighborhood. This is where the 'no child left behind' initiative comes in - steps are taken to boost childrens access to books if their parents don't read at home or facilities and extra help in school or in the neighborhood.
Here is a few points to consider.
1. The relationship between nature and nurture has been endlessly debated with no clear winner. In fact, there is a false binary. In other words, both are extremely important.
2. Let's consider hereditary. From a common sense point of view, if certain traits can be inherited, then why not intelligence? So, it seems reasonable to think that intelligence is somewhat inherited.
3. With respect to nurture, this is also important. If a person grows up in an environment that is not conducive to education, then no matter how intelligent that person is, he or she will not grow to full potential.
I'm afraid a detailed answer to this is well beyond what this site can give you. It's a subject that has taken up many books, articles, etc.
The impact of heredity is somewhat controversial. There are those who believe that intelligence is inherited. But there are others who deny this.
No one doubts the impact of environment on students' ability to learn. However, there are controversies over which environment is more important -- school or home. Or perhaps I should say that there are controversies over whether a good school can make up for a "bad" home.
But really, this topic is just too complex for an answer of this length.
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