What are the themes of "Jude the Obscure"?

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One theme in "Jude the Obscure" by Thomas Hardy is the contrast between rural and urban culture. Jude begins as a country boy whose love of books and knowledge makes him yearn for the city. The country is presented as ignorant and backwards while the city is full of men of knowledge. Another theme in the novel is that of original sin and fate. Jude's son, Father Time, is cursed with a melancholy disposition. Father Time ends up murdering his siblings and himself. Was he destined to do this, or was it a result of circumstance?

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