The Baby Boomer generation is still impacting America today. There are more baby boomers getting older and retiring. They have driven consumer trends since they were born. Why do you think there are so many erectile dysfunction and menopause commercials? They are going to need more health care and put a strain on the social security system.
Following World War II the United States was involved in rebuilding Europe and standing as the alternative to communism and the influence of the Soviet Union. From here we became in involved in the affairs of many other countries. As a superpower, we attempted to influence movements and events all over the world. In some cases this worked well (NATO), in others it was disastrous (Iran--we supported the Shah, who was overthrown).
One thing that this war clearly impacted was gender relations. During the war, of course, women moved into roles that had previously been reserved for men. After the war, however, men returned and women were generally expected to return to the roles they had played before the war. This can be seen as one cause of the discontent that arose among many women later in the '50s and beyond.