Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was born with the last name “Ulyanov” on April 22, 1870. Lenin was a politician and political theorist who was a leader in the Russian communist revolution. He was the leader of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1917-1922 (during this same period, he served as the Premier of the Soviet Union as well). Lenin was a Marxist whose own philosophy became known as Leninism; his economic theories were combined with Marxist economic theories and together, the two are known as Marxism-Leninism.
When the October Revolution of 1917 went down, Lenin played a key role in the ousting of the Provisional government. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. The RSFSR was the first government in the world to be constitutionally socialist. One of Lenin’s first acts in office was to begin socialist reforms; estates and land was transferred from the crown to the workers. In order to speed recovery following the Civil War, Lenin advocated for the “New Economic Policy” which jump-started industrialization. Lenin was elected as the leader of the Soviet Union in 1922. Lenin died in 1924, a hero to some, a dictator to others. Regardless of opinion, he holds a place as one of the most infamous figures of the twentieth century.
Emilio Famy Aguinaldo (1869-1964) holds the distinction of being the first official President of the Philippines. Aguinaldo saw active combat in numerous wars, including battling Spain in the Philippine Revolution, the Spanish-American War, and against the United States in the Philippine-American War. After being captured during the the Philippine-American War, he sough exile in Guam where he lived for decades before returning to the Philippines. ‘
The Mexican Revolution began in 1910 (it is often also called the “Mexican Civil War.) This war began with an uprising against Porfirio Diaz and lasted almost ten years, until about 1920. The rebellion was led be Francisco I. Madero; what began as a revolt soon became a major civil war. The Mexican Revolution is frequently said to have been one of the “greatest upheavals of the twentieth century.” After seven years of conflict, the warring parties produced the Mexican Constitution of 1917, cited by many historians as the “most important social-political events” in the history of Mexico.
Imperalism means that a country tries to extend its power by force in other nations. A list of nations who have engaged in imperialism and the countries they occupied can be found here.
Nationalism is the collective feeling of pride in a country; however, nationalism can be negative in that it often means that those people feel that their own country and their country’s customs are superior to other countries and customs.