Are the works of Nietzsche and Freud “modern” by the definition Pius IV uses in his Syllabus?
From the following works: "God Is Dead": Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science (1882), and Tapping the Human Psyche: Sigmund Freud, The INterpretations of Dreams (1900).
The original question had to be edited down. I would suggest that Pope Pius IX would determine thinkers like Freud to fall under the "modern" construction. For Pope Pius IX, it seemed as if any thinker that sought to widen the net of distancing the individual from the presence of the divine would be condemned as "modern." Freud certainly did this. In his suggestion that the forces of repression as well as the construction of the consciousness in scientific terms such as the subconscious, one sees the lack of the divine present in Freudian terminology. Pope Pius IX would suggest that this is an example of rationalism that fails to account for the supernatural, and thus is flawed. The fact that Freud does not account for reason within a divine framework is where there is a sense of miscalibration, and thus being able to be criticized as "modern" works that are misguided. For Pope Pius IX, the desire to distance the church from affairs of the state and the lives of the individual is where the perceived curse of modernity lies and against this, criticism is levelled. It is here where I think that Pope Pius IX would deem Freud's work as "modern" and able to fall under the umbrella of criticism offered in "the Syllabus."