There are some techniques in determining the characteristic of unknown material even without knowing their chemical formula.
- Conductivity test:
Dissolve the unknown compounds in water.
-If it dissolves and conducts electricity, it is ionic.
-If it dissolves but doesn't conduct electricity, it is covalent.
-If it conducts electricity in its solid state, it is metallic.
-If it doesn't conduct electricity, it is a network covalent.
- Solubility Test:
Dissolve the unknown compounds in water (polar solvent) and/or oil (non-polar solvent).
-If it dissolves in water but not in oil, it is a polar molecule
-If it doesn't dissolve in water but dissolves in oil, it is a non-polar molecule