What nations did the first crusade come into contact with and how did this influence the progress of the expeditions?
The first crusade was launched by a coalition of Western European powers at the insistence of the Pope. The official reason given was to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim hands and free Christians living under Islamic occupation. In reality the motives were a lot more complex and had a lot of geopolitical rationale. The warriors dispatched came into contact with not only the forces of the Islamic caliphate but also Christian nations like the Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Armenia. Some of the other groups that the crusaders and their allies came into contact with were:
- The Turks
- Jews of the Rhineland
- Easter Christians in the Levant