I've attached a link Boeing's 2012 Annual Report for you. It's pretty typical. Things to note:
Part 1: Business description and risk factors are great places to look for how a company analyzes itself (boundaries of industry, competition, macro factors)
Part 2: This will tell you what accounting practices were used. Pay attention when companies value strange assets (like unexploited oil reserves). Boeing's case ismore straightforward.
Part 3: Good for anecdotal evidence of instability in management teams.
Part 4: Self explanatory.
These are easy to find and are a required pulbication for any publicly traded company. Bloomberg has great links to company info if you need more (link below).