Why do you think William Blake never actually says the word "London" in the poem itself? Could this poem be about other cities?

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The poem is a bitter indictment of the structures that create injustice. By naming the poem after the city and identifying the river as the Thames, he leaves no doubt that he wants the reader to draw connections to London . By not being too specific here, the reader has...

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The poem is a bitter indictment of the structures that create injustice. By naming the poem after the city and identifying the river as the Thames, he leaves no doubt that he wants the reader to draw connections to London. By not being too specific here, the reader has to work to construct the sources of injustice that are being denounced.

With each stanza, Blake identifies a more grievous and more specific problem found in the London of his day. While many seem distinctly English, such as the chimney sweeps so often mentioned as a blight in English society, others are more universal, such as the abuses permitted or perpetrated by the church and government. Similarly, the degradation suffered by the prostitute—in pregnancy—is rarely shared by her customers. Venereal disease, however, is, for it "blights with plagues the Marriage hearse."

Would the poem be more effective if he named specific London streets or individuals? Most likely, doing so would allow readers to distance themselves from that specificity. By leaving these unnamed but clearly referring to London, Blake can expand the relevance of the sights he describes.

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William Blake probably doesn't ever say the word "London" in his poem because he does not need to name the city by name.  There is little doubt that the city is London based on the opening stanza.  

I wander thro' each charter'd street,
Near where the charter'd Thames does flow.
The direct naming of the Thames river clearly identifies the city as London, so there is no need to use the word "London."  
 
In regards to the second part of your question, "Could this poem be about other cities," yes I think the poem could be describing just about any other sprawling metropolis during this time period.  The poem describes the city as being crowded, dirty, depressing, and dangerous.  I've read enough about the industrial revolution to know that Blake's description of city life is not unique to London.  The poem could be about Boston or New York during that time, and his descriptions wouldn't change (other than the Thames river part).  
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