Why were the Romans a more successful civilization, compared to the Phoenicians and the Hebrews?
This is a great question and it could be answered in various ways. The Romans were more successful than these people in the ancient world, because of a few reasons.
First, the Romans had the uncanny ability to assimilate people. According to Livy, they took from all nations. For example, they took and used the Greek phalanx for their infantry. The Roman took over Etruscan religion, and ship building from the Carthaginians. The Romans even gave citizenship to foreign people. This fact alone was unique in the ancient world. Through this assimilation, the Romans only grew stronger.
Second, the Romans were a fighting machine. Their military was incredible with respect to their discipline and fierceness. They also had a huge army, which helped enormously.
By contrast, Phoenicians were never united. They were very similar to the Greeks. They had city states. As for the the Hebrews, they were never a military powerhouse, which was essential in the ancient world.
With all of that said, there are other perspectives. We can ask where the Romans and Phoenicians are now? If we do this, we might be able to say that the Hebrews are the most successful. They have a nation and they are entrenched all over the world in all fields.
In the end, it really is a matter of perspective.