Why was the Tsar able to survive the 1905 Revolution?
Tsar Nicholas II survived the 1905 revolution as a result of a combination of factors. The one that was the most significant was that the Russian army remained loyal to him. It is most likely that with out the Russian army’s devotion Tsar Nicholas II would not have survived. Georgi Gapon led the workers who marched on the Winter Palace, this protest resulted in the death of a hundred workers being killed and three hundred more being wounded. This revolt has been named Bloody Sunday. This was only the start of several events that fought for better working conditions and pay, these events are now referred to as the Revolution of 1905. During this period of revolution Tsar Nicholas II had to be very careful and consider every move he made with extreme thought and focus. The government in Russia during this period mishandled many of the events that came up, Bloody Sunday was just one of these events. The injuries and deaths of the workers who were protesting was a result of the Russian police not having the strength to defend properly and as a result they panicked. The deaths of so many workers only led to more strikes and uprisings, such as the people’s stand in Port of Odessa. Once again the situation was improperly handled by Russian troops who ended up killing 2000 citizens and injuring 3000. The mutiny may have been contained but it was a public relations nightmare. Vakulenchuk then became a Bolshevik hero, using the tragedy to stir up the people who were already against the Tsar. The anger that the people had against the Tsar’s regime only grew with the death of innocents and these deaths turned even more people against the Tsar as well. Peter Stolypin was instrumental in the survival of the Tsar. He was able to convince peasants to be allies of the Tsar instead of fighting against him. He did this by helping to improve the poor agricultural system in Russia, he aimed to improve the old systems in Russia as a way to modernize it. Stolypin was also a very ruthless man, unlike Tsar Nicholas II, his ruthlessness was able to suppress many uprisings. He would create the second Duma, which helped with many of the problems in Russia and improved it’s economy along with working and living conditions. These actions that Stolypin took were able to win supporters for Nicholas II. In 1903 the Tsar passed the October Manifesto, this was the development of a lawmaking Duma. The liberal movement made by the Tsar gave the people freedom of speech, a right to a trial, legalized trade unions, and allowed people to gather in assembly and worship. The Tsar hated having to put this in place as he saw it as a betrayal of the autocracy. It was these actions however that led to the Tsar’s survival in 1905.