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This is a great question and there is no one reason why the Industrial revolution started in England in the 18th century. But it can be stated that the Industrial Revolution was one of the most important developments in early modern history. With this stated, let me give you a few reason why it all began in England.
First, there was strong intellectual strand in England. This was an important point, because the Industrial Revolution would not have gotten underway without developments in science and engineering. For example, steam-power fueled by coal was central to the industrial development in textiles.
Second, England was a great maritime nation and power. For this reason they were able to see the world and gain valuable insights. Moreover, it gave the people a wideness to their vision.
Third, Protestantism was in some way more amenable to science than Catholicism. The reason for this is twofold. First, Protestants protested against traditionalism. In this respect, they were more cutting edge in their mentality. Second, Protestantism was an intellectual movement, which meant there was a emphasis on the importance of the mind which ties in to science and technology developments.
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