The Propaganda Movement was a late nineteenth-century reform movement aimed at securing for the peoples of the Philippines the same rights that Spaniards held in Spain. The Philippines at that time were still a Spanish colony. The participants in the movement, referred to as Propagandists, were Filipinos who lived in Spain, with many students among them. They spread their messages through the publication of pamphlets and other literature. The Propaganda Movement contributed to the development of national identity in the Philippines and, indirectly, to the Revolution of 1896.
What did friars have to do with this movement? Already during the mid-1800s, there was a push for Filipino ecclesiastical (i.e. church) autonomy, one of the most prominent proponents being Pedro Peláez y Sebastián (1812–1863), who favored the expulsion of the friars, whom he saw as an impediment to native autonomy. The friars reacted by justifying their presence in the Philippines and describing the natives as unfit to administer themselves. This position only strengthened the argument made by the likes of Peláez and later made the friars a target of the Propaganda Movement.
For a scholarly analysis of the movement, see The Propaganda Movement, 1880-1895: The Creators of Filipino Consciousness, the Makers of the Revolution by John N. Schumacher.