Why was Poseidon angry at Odysseus?  

Mainly, Poseidon hates Odysseus for blinding Polyphemus, who is Poseidon's son. Other reasons include their support for opposing sides in the Trojan war, Poseidon siding with the Trojans and Odysseus with the Greeks. The relationship between Odysseus and Athena may have also fueled Poseidon's anger, as Poseidon is rivals with Athena.

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In The Odyssey, Odysseus tells the Phaeacians the story of his adventures and misadventures as he journeys home to Ithaca from the Trojan War. He explains how he and his men landed on the Island of the Cyclopes and how they sought assistance there. Instead of offering them hospitality, the Cyclops Polyphemus actually eats six of Odysseus’s crew members. Odysseus devises a plan to blind the monster and then escape from his cave hanging from the belly of a ram, and the plan works. Earlier, Odysseus had told Polyphemus that his name was “Nobody,” so when Polyphemus cries out in pain and the other Cyclopes run to help him, he yells from inside his cave, “Nobody’s killing me now by fraud and not by force.” So the others tell him to pray to his father, Poseidon, if “nobody” is hurting him. It’s a cunning trick on Odysseus’s part.

However, as Odysseus and his men sail away from the island, he shouts back at the monster in anger and pride: “Cyclops— if any man on the face of the earth should ask you who blinded you, shamed you so—say Odysseus […], Laertes’ son who makes his home in Ithaca!” Thus, Odysseus reveals his true identity and thus makes himself a target of Poseidon, Polyphemus’s father. Polyphemus then prays, “Hear me— Poseidon […] — come, grant that Odysseus […] never reaches home. Or if he’s fated to see his people once again […], let him come home […] a broken man—all shipmates lost […] — and let him find a world of pain at home!” Poseidon hears this prayer and takes his revenge on Odysseus.

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Odysseus made the huge mistake of blinding the Cyclops Polyphemus, son of the sea-god Poseidon. Polyphemus told Odysseus who his father was, but Odysseus didn't believe him. So not only did he put the giant's single eye out—he also taunted him cruelly as he left the island and foolishly revealed his identity for good measure. Polyphemus cries out to his father for revenge, and Poseidon obliges, regularly intervening to ensure that Odysseus' journey home is as long, hard, and as dangerous as possible.

Poseidon's animus towards Odysseus is also related to the fact that the other gods's decision to allow Odysseus to leave the island Ogygia—where he'd spent seven years with the gorgeous sea-nymph, Calypso—was made while the sea-god was accepting a sacrifice in Ethiopia. Feeling sidelined and disrespected by the other gods, Poseidon makes his anger felt in no uncertain terms. Not long after Odysseus sets sail from Ogygia, Poseidon whips up a violent storm that destroys the hero's ship and almost drags him to his death beneath the sea.

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Odysseus first aroused the ire of Poseidon after he and his crew came to rest on an island inhabited by Polyphemus, a cyclops. Polyphemus was extremely displeased by the arrival of Odysseus and proceeded to eat some of the crew. Naturally, this upset Odysseus, and he and his remaining crew then tricked and blinded the cyclops in order to escape. Unfortunately, they did not know that Polyphemus was the son of Poseidon, the sea god. The cyclops called upon his father to wreak vengeance on Odysseus for maiming him.

Odysseus also revealed his name to the cyclops, which meant that Poseidon knew the identity of the man he wanted to target with his anger.

Poseidon may have felt generally unreceptive to Odysseus because of his attachment to Poseidon's rival, Athena, but it is the cyclops incident that really makes Poseidon angry with Odysseus personally. 

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Poseidon was angry at Odysseus for three reasons. First, Poseidon supported the Trojans in the Trojan war and Odysseus was a member of the Greek forces that defeated the Trojans. Second, the goddess Athena was the main patron of Odysseus and she was a rival to Poseidon, having beaten him in the contest to be the patron deity of Athens. Third, and most important, the Cyclops Polyphemus was the son of Poseidon. In book 9 of the Odyssey, Odysseus and his men blind Polyphemus. Because Poseidon is god of the sea, offending him caused numerous delays in Odysseus’ sea voyage home.

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