As others have pointed out, Karl Marx was a critic of the excesses and abuses of industrialism. In books like Capital, he gathered documents that outlined some of industrialism's exploitation of women and children in the British textile mills. He writes in 1867's Capital:
Children of nine or ten are dragged from their squalid beds at four a.m. and compelled to work until ten, eleven, or twelve at night, their limbs wearing away, their frames dwindling, their faces whitening
Other groups critical of industrialism emerged in the nineteenth century. The chartists, for example, focused on extending the vote to more people. The trade unionists struggled to establish collective bargaining. Marx, however, believed that the only way the system could be permanently freed from the grasp of predatory capitalists was through violent revolution. He believed reform movements would fail because the owner classes would ruthlessly undermine any compromises with workers as quickly as possible. The only solution was to get rid of the owners (by which he meant the extraordinarily wealthy top industrialists, bankers, and landowners) once and for all.
Clearly, this was not popular with the very wealthy owner class, who feared and loathed Marxism. After the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which established a communist state in the USSR for 74 years, Marxism was taken seriously as an alternative political system. Industrial leaders decided, especially after the crisis of the Great Depression, that it was best to offer workers some rights within the context of a system of private ownership in order to stave off possible revolutions in their own countries. As a result, the plight of industrial workers improved in many places.