Soil is considered to be a natural resource. It provides a habitat for soil dwellers such as earthworms, nematode worms, fungi, bacteria, moles, insects and a variety of plants. Soil is formed when bedrock which is the parent material, is weathered over the years. Eventually, pieces of rock break off and those further weather until the particles are the size of sand, silt, clay and pebbles. When organic matter from such things as leaf debris, wastes and dead organisms are added, this material is known as humus and it further enriches the soil. Residual soils form in an area from underlying bedrock and it can take hundreds of years to form an inch of topsoil due to physical and chemical weathering. Transported soils are those that are carried from one place to another. When glaciers melted after the last ice age and receded, transported soil was deposited in distant areas.
Soil is important because of the nutrients and vital compounds that it carries for the plants and organisms which live within it.