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The tundra is found in the Northern Hemisphere, in Northern Canada, Alaska and Russia, for example. This biome consists of dwarfed trees, mosses and lichens, which grow on rock. It is a place where the subsoil consists of permafrost, which means it remains frozen. This prevents large trees with deep roots from being able to grow here. There are only two seasons in the tundra, winter and summer. It gets extremely cold in the tundra in winter. For about two months in summer, the top layer of permafrost melts leaving the ground soggy. There is a very short growing season. There are lakes and streams and bogs in the tundra. It is a very dry place and can be very windy. There are only 6-10 inches of rainfall per year. The tundra has low biodiversity, however, it is home to many insects, migrating birds, caribou, (reindeer), Arctic hares and foxes, owls and polar bears, to name a few.
Biome refers to the collection of distinctive types of plants and animals found in a large geographical area. The entire world is divided in many different biomes. The boundaries of these biomes is determined largely by their climate.
Tundra is the coldest of the eight major biomes. It has a very cold climate and dry climate. Because of the dry climate the subsoil is permanently frozen, and no trees grow on it. It is covered with snow for more than half of the year.
Tundras cover areas near the Arctic Ocean, in Greenland and the northern parts of Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Russia. Most Tundras are lowlands, but some have mountains. These are mostly uninhabited. A very small number of people live in areas where they can fish and hunt for food.
Thought no plants can be seen in tundra during the long winters the region comes to life in springs with plants that grow fast and cover the ground with bright flowers. animals like caribou, reindeer, and musk oxen graze on these plants, and wolves prey on the grazing animals. Other animals found in tundra include Arctic foxes and hares, grizzly bears, lemmings, polar bears, and ptarmigans. Birds such as geese and terns fly north to nest. Marine animals like seals and walrus live along the coast of arctic ocean. Some kind of fishes and Arctic char live in lakes and rivers.
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