Why is rolling friction less than sliding friction?

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justaguide eNotes educator| Certified Educator

You are allowed to ask only one question at a time. I have edited your question to comply with the same.

Sliding or kinetic friction is the result of force of interaction between the particles that make up the two surfaces that are in contact when they move against each other. It is the value of the force of friction after the bodies have started to move and is less than the force of static friction. The force of kinetic friction is given by the formula Fk*N, where N is the normal force and Fk is the coefficient of kinetic friction. Fk usually has values around 0.3 .

Rolling friction is considerably less than sliding friction as there is no work done against the body that is rolling by the force of friction. For a body to start rolling a small amount of friction is required at the point where it rests on the other surface, else it would slide instead of roll. This is provided by the static friction between a small part that is in contact with the surface it would roll on. The coefficient of rolling friction has values in the range 0.02-0.06 .

elie2107 | Student

Rolling friction is unlocked wheels and is moving efficiently, however sliding friction is where the wheels of the care are locked and there isn't much friction between the wheel and the ground. This happens when you hit a hard brake. In other scenarios, ice skating doesn't contain much friction, as it is sliding friction.