In The Scarlet Letter, why is Pearl often compared to an elf? 

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A preternatural creature that is given to mischievous, capricious acts, an elf is a fitting description for Pearl, "the scarlet letter endowed with life." For, as the incarnation of Hester's sin, Pearl becomes Hester's bane at times since Hester has been sentenced to be "a living sermon against sin."

Pearl is "imbued with a spell of infinite variety" as she exhibits a capricious nature since, Hawthorne writes, "the warfare of Hester's spirit...was perpetuated in Pearl." So often Hester must clutch Pearl to her bosom in order to convince herself that this "sprite" is indeed human and not a delusion.  Many times, too, there is a bewilderment in Hester and a "baffling spell" between mother and child as the capricious Pearl scowls and clenches her fist in anger, then just as quickly she laughs.  Because of her unique nature, the Puritan children disparage Pearl with epithets, but Pearl retaliates in "a fierce temper," and a show of "the evil that existed in her" to Hester.  At the same time, when Hester cries out in agony at this recognition of her sinfulness which elicits prayers from her mouth, the elfish Pearl then smiles and resumes her childish games.

Moreover, Pearl is clearly sprite-like in her reactions to Hester's scarlet letter. With a "freakish, elvish" look on her face, Pearl seems to mock her mother in Chapter III when she gathers flowers and then pelts them at Hester's letter. Pained by this act, Hester looks with melancholy into the dark eyes of Pearl, "the laughing image of a fiend."

"Child, what art thou?"

"Oh, I am your little Pearl"

But while she said it, Pearl laughed, and began to dance up and down with the humoursome gesticulation of a little imp....

In Chapter VIII when Hester and Pearl come to the mansion of Governor Bellingham, Pearl refuses to behave and again mocks her mother's sin as she points to the reflection of the scarlet letter in the gleaming armor of the governor,

That look of naughty merriment was likewise reflected in the mirror...that it made Hester Prynne feel as if it could not be the image of her own child, but of an imp who was seeking to mould itself into Pearl's shape.

When questioned by the Reverend Mr. Wilson on who made her, Pearl refuses to recite her catechism and impetuously replies that she was plucked by her mother off the bush of wild roses...

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gfrannypants | Student

Hawthorne compares Pearl to an elf to emphasize her supernatural qualities. Pearl's unusual (illegitimate) birth, combined with her chimerical moods and observant qualities, create a maddening and enchanting character. 

Pearl is introduced as being physically beautiful, and Hawthorne's use of biblical characters and language serve to give Pearl a celestial quality.

Certainly, Pearl had no physical defect. The child was so perfectly formed, energetic, and coordinated that she could have been born in the Garden of Eden. And if she had been left there after Adam and Eve had been driven out, she could have been the playmate of the angels.

Pearl is not like the other children in the village. Her behavior and characteristics, in addition to her illegitimacy, make her a pariah. 

 Pearl stared intently at them, but she never tried to introduce herself. She would not reply if spoken to. And if the children gathered around her, as they sometimes did, Pearl would become absolutely terrifying in her puny wrath. She would pick up stones to throw at them and make incomprehensible shrieks that made her mother tremble because they sounded like the curses of some alien witch.

Pearl's antics and behavior frustrate her mother, overshadowing Hester's fierce love for the little girl.

That look of naughty merriment was likewise reflected in the mirror...that it made Hester Prynne feel as if it could not be the image of her own child, but of an imp who was seeking to mould itself into Pearl's shape.

Pearl's elvishness extends beyond behavior- Hawthorne imbues Pearl with a keen sense of perception, and Pearl often startles her mother with her incredible powers of observation.

“Your heavenly Father sent you!” answered Hester Prynne. But she said it with a hesitation that the perceptive child noticed. Whether because of her own contrariness, or because an evil spirit prompted her, Pearl raised her small forefinger and touched the scarlet letter. “He did not send me!” she cried with certainty. “I don’t have a heavenly Father!”

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itsrainingmuffins | Student

It's because she is troublemaking and mischievous, oftentimes how elfs are seen to be like.

Wiggin42 | Student

Pearl is a strange and frightening creature for the characters in The Scarlet Letter. Society is afraid of what she is and what she represents. Adding that to the fact that Hester often dresses her up in different (more attractive?) ways than the other children, give Pearl  and out-of-this-world feel. Pearl is elf-like in her tendencies and habits. Just the people in the novel are wary of elves, they are wary of Pearl and so the comparison is fitting. 

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