As other posts here indicate, "artificial" in the 1600s would mean created by humans. The Leviathan represents political power or the commonwealth, which is made up of the many parts of the social order.
Hobbes' influential text, which expresses an early and important theory of the social contract, does not suggest power—especially the absolute power of a monarchy such as he favored—derived from nature. Unlike medieval ideas of nobility or gentility, which suggested that the people who were noble were of an originally better type, Hobbes denies a natural or genetic quality to power. Similarly, unlike Stuart monarchs, Hobbes denies a metaphysical or divine source of monarchy. The monarch is not more like the divine than any other person.
Instead, the absolute sovereign is powerful because the people trade their right to self-rule in order to gain greater security. It is a contract that the people of the commonwealth willingly enter in to and thus is artificial, or made by humans.