The term "New England" describes the northeastern region of the United States and, in modern day, includes Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
New England is important to American history because is it the first clearly defined region established by European settlers in the early 1600s. Pilgrims from England were the first group to colonize what is now the United States, followed by a variety of English Puritans groups and business ventures over the next 200 years.
New England was the home of the American revolution, which began in the 1770s. The American Revolution was a war between the American colonies and the British king in which the American colonies fought for their independence from England. New England fostered the writers, politicians, and scientists who ultimately became revolutionaries.
Essentially, New England was important to American history because it was the oldest region of the United States as we know it today, it was a community for the first colonizers, and it was the hotbed of the American Revolution.