I would argue that the Mesopotamian civilization's greatest impact on the development of human civilization came from its development of writing. The first known system of writing was the Sumerian cuneiform system. Writing has had a profound impact on human civilization, which means that the invention of writing had a tremendous impact on civilization.
Writing has changed our lives completely. It has allowed us to transmit and store knowledge in ways that would never have been possible without writing. This means that we can, effectively, know much more than people ever could before. Because we have writing, we can store all sorts of knowledge that allow us to have, simply as one example, many kinds of technology that make our lives easier and more fun.
Because of this, I would argue that the Mesopotamian invention of cuneiform is their greatest contribution to the development of human civilization.
I believe that the invention of Mesopotamia which most impacted history was the wheel. Writing was invented by the Egyptians independent of the Mesopotamians, as did a number of civilizations in China and the Americas. Only Mesopotamia ranks as the first to develop this magnificent tool which balances weight such that it is easy to transport. It should be noted that the societies of the Americas, for all their accomplishments, never developed the wheel. It is generallly considered the most widely used and useful tool in the world. As useful as writing might have been, the wheel was certainly far more important.
How has Mesopotamia affected the areas around it?
they contributed beer, the writing and the art