In Beowulf, why does Wulfgar believe that the Geats are there for glory and not because they are exiled?  

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I think, semantically, it's a bit dangerous to use the word "glory" here. The idea of a band of warriors seeking glory suggests that they're doing it purely for praise. Certainly, praise is important in Anglo-Saxon cultures, which believed that it was very important to do heroic deeds to be remembered. But that's not exactly what Wulfgar thinks of Beowulf and his men; he doesn't say that he thinks they're on a glory-seeking mission. He actually says that he thinks they've come out of "wlenco" (valor) and "higeþrymmum" (the greatness of their hearts). So, he's saying that he's sure they've sought out Hrothgar deliberately because they're brave men; he doesn't think they're here by accident or because they've been exiled by their own people.

Wulfgar's description of the warriors' appearance explains why he believes this. He says they look "módiglícran," brave in spirit. He observes that there are many of them and that they're all very well equipped. In Anglo-Saxon culture, men were exiled because they had committed some wrong against their group—often cowardice or desertion in battle. Wulfgar is saying that he doesn't believe any group would exile men who carried themselves in this way and were so well equipped. Therefore, he can only assume that they've come because they're brave and they want to help.

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In chapter five of Beowulf, Wulfgar (the herald and marshal of Hrothagar) meets Beowulf and his band of warriors. Upon this initial meeting, Wulfgar immediately states "never have I met so many foreigners of heroic bearing. Methinks that it's for glory—not because of exile, but for courageous valor—that you seek Hrothgar!” Given Wulfgar's immediate reaction to the band of men, something must have triggered this innate response.

Prior to Wulfgar's statement, the text defines Wulfgar as a "proud warrior." Although seemingly unimportant, one could interpret Wulfgar's own existence as a warrior as the qualifier which makes him an expert on the subject of warriors. Essentially, the old cliche "it takes one to know one" comes into play here.

Another suggestion would be that the appearance of the warriors triggers Wulfgar's characterization of the men. He immediately recognizes their "heroic bearing." Heroes are not typically exiled; they are praised.

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