Why Does Claudius Send Hamlet To England
Why does the king send Hamlet to England? And why does the king send Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to accompany him?
Claudius first decides to send Hamlet to England because he's afraid of what Hamlet knows about his murdered father, and because Claudius thinks that a change of scenery might help cure his melancholy.
CLAUDIUS: . . . There's something in his soul
O'er which his melancholy sits on brood;
And I do doubt the hatch and the disclose
Will be some danger; which for to prevent,
I have in quick determination
Thus set it down: he shall with speed to England
For the demand of our neglected tribute.
Haply the seas, and countries different,
With variable objects shall expel
This something-settled matter in his heart,
Whereon his brains still beating puts him thus
From fashion of himself. (3.1.173–184)
He then confides to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern the real reason he wants Hamlet to go to England. Claudius has become increasingly concerned about Hamlet's behavior. Claudius doesn't really think that Hamlet is mad, but he doesn't want to take any chances.
CLAUDIUS: I like him not, nor stands it safe with us
To let his madness range. Therefore prepare you.
I your commission will forthwith dispatch,
And he to England shall along with you.
The terms of our estate may not endure
Hazard so near us as doth hourly grow
Out of his brows. (3.3.1–7)
Later we learn the contents of the "commission" which Claudius gave to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern for Hamlet when he orders them to accompany Hamlet to England.
HAMLET: . . . That on the supervise, no leisure bated,
No, not to stay the grinding of the axe,
My head should be struck off. (5.2.24–26)
Hamlet already knows he's being sent to England when he accidentally kills Polonius, and he probably suspects what Claudius intends to have him killed, but Claudius uses the death of Polonius as further pretext for getting Hamlet out of Elsinore as soon as possible, supposedly for Hamlet's own safety.
CLAUDIUS: Hamlet, this deed, for thine especial safety—
Which we do tender as we dearly grieve
For that which thou hast done—must send thee hence
With fiery quickness. Therefore prepare thyself.
The bark is ready and the wind at help,
The associates tend, and everything is bent
For England. (4.3.42–48)
As for a reason why Claudius didn't just have Hamlet killed in Denmark (or kill him himself, like Hamlet's father), Claudius fears that Hamlet is too well-liked by the people, and there would be repercussions again him if Hamlet were killed.
CLAUDIUS: I have sent to seek him, and to find the body.
How dangerous is it that this man goes loose!
Yet must not we put the strong law on him.
He's loved of the distracted multitude,
Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes;
And where 'tis so, the offender's scourge is weigh'd,
But never the offence. To bear all smooth and even,
This sudden sending him away must seem
Deliberate pause. Diseases desperate grown
By desperate appliance are relieved,
Or not at all. (4.3.1–11)
As for why Claudius sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to England with Hamlet, we know that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are childhood friends of Hamlet, and that Claudius sent for them earlier in the...
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He sends him because he starts to feel that Hamlet knows that he killed his father, so, he thought if he sent him to England he'll get rid off him forever. He sent them to kill Hamlet!