Why does Atticus go to the jail in chapter 15 of To Kill a Mockingbird?

Atticus goes to the Maycomb jail in chapter 15 of To Kill a Mockingbird to protect Tom Robinson from the Old Sarum bunch, which is a group of intoxicated men who plan on lynching Tom before the trial.

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At the beginning of chapter 15, Sheriff Tate, Link Deas, and several of Atticus's friends visit his home to warn him about the Old Sarum bunch. Sheriff Tate is worried that the Cunninghams will attempt to harm Tom Robinson before the trial when they move him to the Maycomb jailhouse. Initially, Atticus dismisses their concerns and does not believe that the Old Sarum bunch will cause any trouble on a Sunday. Despite Atticus's initial feelings, he decides to take a precaution by visiting the Maycomb jailhouse the next evening. Atticus shares his friends' concerns regarding the Old Sarum bunch and is determined to protect his client.
Following Sunday dinner, Atticus takes a light attached to an extension cord with him to sit outside of the Maycomb jailhouse. Jem, Scout, and Dill are curious and follow Atticus to the jailhouse, where they find him peacefully reading his newspaper. Suddenly, a group of cars arrives from the Meridian highway, and the Old Sarum bunch quickly surrounds Atticus. Walter Cunningham and his lynch mob instruct Atticus to move out of the way, but he refuses to leave. Scout, Jem, and Dill end up coming out of their hiding spot, and their presence manages to persuade Walter and his men to leave. Fortunately, no one is hurt during the incident, and Atticus protects Tom Robinson from the lynch mob.
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Atticus goes to the jail in hopes that his presence will stop people from dragging Tom Robinson out of the jail and killing him. 

Earlier in the chapter, Jem and Scout overhear Heck Tate talking to Atticus about not wanting to keep Tom Robinson in the jail on Sunday night (the night before the trial starts).  Tate is afraid that he won't be able to keep Robinson safe.  At first, Atticus doesn't think that Tate's concerns are valid. 

“They don’t usually drink on Sunday, they go to church most of the day…” Atticus said.

However, by the time that Sunday evening arrives, it's clear that Atticus is concerned about Robinson's safety.  Atticus excuses himself from the house carrying a lamp and an extension cord and gets in his car.  Jem and Scout both find this very odd, but they do go to bed as told.  Of course Jem and Scout are way too curious about what their father is up to, so they sneak out of the house, get Dill, and begin searching the town for Atticus.  

They find him sitting in front of the jail.

A long extension cord ran between the bars of a second-floor window and down the side of the building. In the light from its bare bulb, Atticus was sitting propped against the front door. He was sitting in one of his office chairs, and he was reading, oblivious of the nightbugs dancing over his head.

The three children then watch as four cars pull up, and a bunch of men step out of the cars.  They approach Atticus and tell him to step aside.  They have come to get Robinson.  Atticus refuses to move and tells the men that they should go home.  The situation is quite tense for a moment, and then Jem, Scout, and Dill run up to Atticus.  It's at this moment that Atticus shows a bit of fear.  He's now worried for the safety of his kids.  The men threaten physical violence against Atticus and the kids; however, Scout is able to diffuse the situation by forcing Mr. Cunningham into a semi-conversation with her.  Mr. Cunningham is unable to bring himself to continue with his original intentions, and he orders the rest of the men home.  

I looked around and up at Mr. Cunningham, whose face was equally impassive. Then he did a peculiar thing. He squatted down and took me by both shoulders.

“I’ll tell him you said hey, little lady,” he said.

Then he straightened up and waved a big paw. “Let’s clear out,” he called. “Let’s get going, boys.”

Atticus definitely went to the jail in order to stop a lynching, but Scout was probably more successful than Atticus ever could have been. 

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Atticus shows his unflinching courage and determination when he goes to the jail by himself in Chapter 15 of the Harper Lee novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Earlier in the day, he had been paid a visit by a group of citizens, including Dr. Reynolds and Mr. Avery. They spoke quietly, and Scout was uncertain of their intentions. But we can infer that they had appeared to warn Atticus that there was talk about the town of taking Tom Robinson from the jail that night--a lynching in Maycomb.
So, Atticus headed to the jail to support Sheriff Tate if the need arose. Soon, the group of men arrive. Atticus tries to nonchalantly talk the men into leaving, but he is unsuccessful. Futhermore, Sheriff Tate has been called out "on a snipe hunt."

"... Heck's bunch's so deep in the woods they won't get out till mornin'."

Atticus is left alone to confront the lynch party by himself. When things appear hopeless for Tom and violence appears likely, Jem, Scout and Dill come to the rescue, and the men's deadly resolve melts before Scout's innocent and genuine amicability.
Tom remains safe, Atticus breathes a sigh of relief, and Mr. Underwood surprises them all by announcing that he had them covered--with a double-barreled shotgun--all along.

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