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Why do you think that the gender pay gap exists all over the world?

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This is a great question and one that sociologists and economists have been trying to answer for a long time. The truth is that there is not a single simple answer that we can point to.

One likely contributor is a result of a disparity in education. In many parts...

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This is a great question and one that sociologists and economists have been trying to answer for a long time. The truth is that there is not a single simple answer that we can point to.

One likely contributor is a result of a disparity in education. In many parts of the world, education is more of a priority for males. Girls and women are expected to take care of domestic issues, and therefore when there are limited means, a boy's education is prioritized. As a result, men with a higher educational background are privy to higher pay and more lucrative jobs. This is one reason why sociologists stress the importance of providing girls with a thorough education.

Furthermore, in many societies, the old paradigm of the man as the family's breadwinner has endured. Women have long been excluded from rising in the workforce, particularly married women. Female-dominated work sectors therefore traditionally pay less, as women were only expected to join the workforce for a few years before starting a family and leaving it. In Europe and North America, this was more true a couple of generations ago than it is today. However, the disparity in pay largely remains.

Indeed, a Harvard University study concluded that even when everything else is equal, men in the same company as women still earn more, as they are more likely to have the time and means to work more hours and advance within the company than their female counterparts, as they have fewer commitments outside of the workplace. It goes to figure that in societies in which women are also more expected to be in charge of domestic duties and childrearing, there are more barriers to hurdle for them to advance economically.

Of course, there are many other factors behind the pay gap; they include male-dominated workplace cultures, less workplace recognition for the accomplishments of female employees, salary negotiation norms, gender conditioning which subtly steers genders into different economic sectors, and general sexist attitudes in society. This is why it will take a concerted and sustained effort to close the pay gap around the world.

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This is a great question. There are a few ways in which to answer this question. I think the best way to answer it is to look at it from the perspective of sociology. Sociologist like Peter Berger have made the point that people create society. More specifically, people in power create society. In this sense, all culture is constructed. It just so happens that the people who had most of the power were men. So, when men created society, they favored their gender at the expense of women. To be sure things are changing, but there are still places where the inequalities are enormous, like in the Middle East.

With that said, we can see this inequality in the United States as well. Recently, women brought a lawsuit against Walmart concerning this very issue.

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