Why do electrons move only if the current is moving in the opposite direction and consisting of protons?

Electric current is the rate of flow of an electric charge across a point. The electric charge could be either an electron or a proton, it does not matter. It is the electron's movement that causes the current, and not the other way round! This means that the current is itself generated because an electron or a proton moves.

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Electric current is the rate of flow of an electric charge across a point. The electric charge could be an electron or a proton, it does not matter. In our metal conductors, free electrons are easily available. When a difference in potential is applied across a metal, the free electron...

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Electric current is the rate of flow of an electric charge across a point. The electric charge could be an electron or a proton, it does not matter. In our metal conductors, free electrons are easily available. When a difference in potential is applied across a metal, the free electron moves and that causes an electric current to be generated. However, the electric current is not essentially an electron's flow -- it could be a proton moving as well! What matters for electric current is the rate of flow of any charge across a point.

In the cases of the batteries and diodes we use, it is the movement of the electron (in our specific metallic conductor cases) that causes the current. In other words, the electron does not move opposite to the current, but the current is generated precisely because of the movement of the electrons. It is opposite in the case of an electron because of its change (which is negative). If a proton were to move, electric current would still be generated but in the positive or the same direction.

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