Americans vote on Tuesdays because it was the most convenient day at the time when America was still mostly an agricultural based economy. Farmers had to work on Saturday, Sunday was a day of worship.
In order to get to the voting location, it would take farmers, in horse and buggy, or on horseback, about a day of travel, so Monday was no good, because they would not travel on Sunday.
Tuesday was picked by the process of elimination, as the most convenient day of the week, allowing both time for travel back and forth to the farm.
Because we were an agrarian society. Farmers needed a day to get to the county seat, a day to vote, and a day to get back, without interfering with the three days of worship. So that left Tuesday and Wednesday, but Wednesday was market day. So, Tuesday it was.
In 1845, Congress established Election Day as "the Tuesday after the first Monday of November." November was picked because the country was mostly agricultural-based at the time and harvest is over by November. Further, Tuesdays tended to be easier days to get voters to assemble to vote.
The reason Americans vote on Tuesday takes us back to our agragrian, Puritan roots. Harvest time was in November. Americans attended church on Sundays and Wednesday was market days. Therefore, having an election on Tuesdays allowed people to drive by horse and buggy from the country to the polling places and make it back before Market day.