After the Civil War, and during the Reconstruction period, African-Americans in the Mississippi Delta enjoyed a short degree of success. Despite violent efforts by whites to suppress black social mobility, the freedman became important parts of the legislatures in many southern states. Economic freedoms were realized by African-Americans as well. As a result, many used their new freedoms to own small farms. by 1890, most farms in the Mississippi Delta were owned by African-Americans. After Reconstruction ended in 1877, however, many of these opportunities were abruptly taken from African-Americans. Mississippi created a new constitution in 1890 that stripped voting and political rights from most African-Americans by instituting literacy tests and poll taxes. As a result, many African-Americans lost their ability to operate their own farms and thousands moved north. This created an opportunity for white farmers to acquire land in the delta and thousands of them descended south to take advantage of this opportunity.