Why did Roy Eberhardt's family move so much in the book Hoot by Carl Hiaasen?

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The answer to this question can be found early in chapter one. Readers are told that Roy has lived in ten different places during his life. He is a young teenager, so that means his family is moving to a new place every one to two years. The reason for the moves is Roy's father. We are told that he works for the government and that he is very good at his job.

Roy's father worked for the government. His mother said they moved so often because Roy's father was very good at his job (whatever that was) and frequently got promoted.

We are not told exactly what his dad does for the government, but the text is indicating one of two things is happening with his father. His father is taking promotions and having to move in order to accept those promotions, or his father is being forcefully transferred because they need his expertise somewhere else. Both are possibilities, and the concept could seem very foreign to a lot of readers. Anecdotally, that situation rings very true. My own father worked for the government his entire career. I lived in five different states before kindergarten and three more after that.

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The answer to your question can be found on page nine of the novel. The story is told from a third-person point of view, and the narrator states on page nine that Coconut Cove, Florida, is the tenth town that Roy and his family have lived in since he could remember. Roy's father works for the the Department of Justice. His mother explains to Roy that his father is "very good at his job" and that is why they move around so much. She explains that his father is frequently promoted, and promotions are usually followed by a move. The narrator, simulating Roy's thoughts, states, "Apparently that's how the government rewarded good work, by transferring you from one place to another." 

No other details are given about Roy's father's job in the novel. Prior to moving to Coconut Cove, Florida, Roy's family lived in Montana. Roy didn't want to leave Montana and said it was his favorite place where they'd lived.

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