Why did Marx and Engels write The Communist Manifesto, advocating communism in 1848?

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Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) were German philosophers who had a profound impact on the course of twentieth-century history. Although Marx became more famous than Engels, their collaboration was a real and epochal partnership.

Prior to meeting Engels in 1844, Marx was a vagabond who moved a lot. An average student, he did not do well at the University of Bonn, where he got into trouble from drinking and dueling. He then studied at the University of Berlin and became involved with the Young Hegelians. In 1842, Marx received a doctorate, but he could not obtain a permanent position. Engels came from a well-off family, and he was not as itinerant as his future partner. Engels supported Marx and his large family after the 1840s.

A series of events in the 1840s led to the publication of The Communist Manifesto. First, in Paris, Marx published the short-lived German-French Annals. Engels contributed an article to the Annals , and a life-long partnership began. Second, the...

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