How does Huck Finn's narrative perspective help to express the themes Twain was working with in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?
Twain attempts in this novel to express the theme that society's morality is often inverted, hypocritical, and self-serving. Natural morality has been turned upside down, so that what is inherently a moral evil, such as owning another human being as a slave, is turned by society into an acceptable norm. Further, Twain wants to show that Southern society before 1860 had created a warped hierarchy of morality that valued money and property more than human dignity and freedom. All of this is put into sharp relief by Huck's anguished moral self-examinations about helping Jim.
Huck is a naive character, meaning he has imbibed his society's morals, but he is too unsophisticated to realize their hypocrisy. His narrative perspective is sincere: when he thinks about what he is doing in helping Jim to escape he is genuinely anguished over the moral decisions he has to make. An older, more sophisticated character might have gone in one of two directions: he would either mouth hypocritical lies...
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I think Twain picked Huck as the narrator because he is still a child and was raised in the stereo-typical southern society. Also, the fact that he is young means he still has innocence. Therefore, his is able to look beyond Jim's color and become his friend. It reminds me of Scout from To Kill A Mockingbird. Hope that helped!